Daniel P. Carpenter

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Elections with small margins of victory represent an important form of democratic competition and, increasingly, an opportunity for causal inference. When scholars use close elections for examining competition or for causal inference, they impose assumptions about the politics of close contests: campaigns are unable to systematically determine the outcome.(More)
BACKGROUND Public participation in many preventive health programs is suboptimal. While various interventions to increase participation have been studied, the impact of a celebrity spokesperson on cancer screening has not been rigorously examined. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of Katie Couric's March 2000 Today Show colorectal cancer(More)
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug review bears a structural similarity to many decisions made by other regulatory agencies: high uncertainty, low reversibility, avoidance of observable error, and high political stakes that induce lobbying by interested parties. This paper explores the policy lessons to be learned from viewing FDA drug review as a(More)
OBJECTIVES We explored whether the United States, which does not regulate pharmaceutical prices, is responsible for the development of a disproportionate share of the new molecular entities (NMEs; a drug that does not contain an active moiety previously approved by the Food and Drug Administration) produced worldwide. METHODS We collected data on NMEs(More)
BACKGROUND Orthopaedic biomaterials are susceptible to biofilm formation. A novel lipid-based material has been developed that may be loaded with antibiotics and applied as an implant coating at point of care. However, this material has not been evaluated for antibiotic elution, biofilm inhibition, or in vivo efficacy. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES (1) Do(More)
Importance Many investigational drugs fail in late-stage clinical development. A better understanding of why investigational drugs fail can inform clinical practice, regulatory decisions, and future research. Objective To assess factors associated with regulatory approval or reasons for failure of investigational therapeutics in phase 3 or pivotal trials(More)
The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented in both its scale and impact. Out of this human calamity has come renewed attention to global health security--its definition, meaning, and the practical implications for programmes and policy. For example, how does a government begin to strengthen its core public health capacities, as(More)
Public agencies have discretion on the time domain, and politicians deploy numerous policy instruments to constrain it. Yet little is known about how administrative procedures that affect timing also affect the quality of agency decisions. We examine whether administrative deadlines shape decision timing and the observed quality of decisions. Using a unique(More)