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Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurological, particularly neurodegenerative diseases. OS can cause cellular damage and subsequent cell death because the reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidize vital cellular components such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Moreover, the brain is exposed throughout life to excitatory(More)
Free radicals are highly reactive molecules generated predominantly during cellular respiration and normal metabolism. Imbalance between cellular production of free radicals and the ability of cells to defend against them is referred to as oxidative stress (OS). OS has been implicated as a potential contributor to the pathogenesis of acute central nervous(More)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) damages dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) as seen in Parkinson's disease. Here, we show that the pro-apoptotic protein Bax is highly expressed in the SNpc and that its ablation attenuates SNpc developmental neuronal apoptosis. In adult mice, there is an up-regulation of Bax(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal disease, characterized by progressive death of motor neurons with unknown etiology. Evidence from animal models indicates that neuronal dysfunction precedes the clinical phase of the disease. However, in parallel extensive nerve sprouting and synaptic remodeling as part of a compensatory reinnervation(More)
The protooncogene bcl-2 inhibits neuronal apoptosis during normal brain development as well as that induced by cytotoxic drugs or growth factor deprivation. We have previously demonstrated that neurons of mice deficient in Bcl-2 are more susceptible to neurotoxins and that the dopamine (DA) level in the striatum after systemic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) provides neuroprotection against beta-amyloid toxicity in models of Alzheimer's disease. A superactive analogue, stearyl-Nle17-VIP (SNV) is a 100-fold more potent than VIP. In primary neuronal cultures, VIP protective activity may be mediated by femtomolar-acting glial proteins such as activity-dependent neurotrophic(More)
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of central nervous system damage in neurodegenerative diseases as well as in normal aging. Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases caused by both environmental and inherited factors. DJ-1 mutations were recently identified in familial PD. The aim of this(More)
Accumulating data indicate that oxidative stress (OS) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to OS, generated in excess primarily by macrophages, have been implicated as mediators of demyelination and axonal damage in both MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), its animal(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates the MAP kinases, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK (p38). These phosphorylated intermediates at the stress-activated pathway induce expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), leading to inflammatory responses(More)
BACKGROUND Human bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC), because of their capacity of multipotency, may provide an unlimited cell source for cell replacement therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the developmental potential of hMSC to replace the midbrain dopamine neurons selectively lost in Parkinson's disease. METHODS Cells(More)