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Of all malignancies diagnosed in men between 17 and 45 years of age, 60% are germ cell tumors (GCT). GCT arise from carcinoma in situ cells, which are thought to originate from a transformed fetal germ cell, the gonocyte. Seminoma together with embryonal carcinoma represent the most frequent subtypes of GCT. However, the nature of the molecular pathways(More)
Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are the most frequent cancer type in young men; 5% of these patients develop a second TGCT in the contralateral testis. The pathogenesis of TGCT is closely linked to primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. The receptor tyrosine kinase (c-KIT) is necessary for migration and survival of PGCs and is expressed in(More)
Testicular germ cell tumors are the most frequent malignant tumors in young Caucasian males, with increasing incidence. The actual model of tumorigenesis is based on the theory that a block in maturation of fetal germ cells lead to formation of the intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified. Early fetal germ cells and undifferentiated germ cell tumors(More)
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with potential for therapeutic applications can be derived from somatic cells via ectopic expression of a set of limited and defined transcription factors. However, due to risks of random integration of the reprogramming transgenes into the host genome, the low efficiency of the process, and the potential risk of(More)
Formation of the germ cell lineage involves multiple processes, including repression of somatic differentiation and reacquisition of pluripotency as well as a unique epigenetic constitution. The transcriptional regulator Prdm1 has been identified as a main coordinator of this process, controlling epigenetic modification and gene expression. Here we report(More)
BACKGROUND Most testicular germ cell tumors arise from intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU, also referred to as carcinoma in situ), which is thought to originate from a transformed primordial germ cell (PGC)/gonocyte, the fetal germ cell. Analyses of the molecular profile of IGCNU and seminoma show similarities to the expression profile of(More)
Malignant germ-cell tumours arise from a neoplastic precursor, the carcinoma in situ, and develop into seminomas and/or non-seminomas (embryonal carcinomas, teratomas, yolk-sac tumours and choriocarcinomas). Based on histological and clinical findings, it has been postulated that seminomas can eventually transform into non-seminomas. Here, we used the cell(More)
BACKGROUND An appropriate normalization strategy is crucial for data analysis from real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR). It is widely supported to identify and validate stable reference genes, since no single biological gene is stably expressed between cell types or within cells under different conditions. Different(More)
Type II testicular germ cell cancers (TGCT) are the most frequently diagnosed tumours in young men (20-40 years) and are classified as seminoma or non-seminoma. TGCTs are commonly treated by orchiectomy and chemo- or radiotherapy. However, a subset of metastatic non-seminomas (embryonal carcinomas) displays only incomplete remission or relapse and requires(More)
Seminomas and embryonal carcinomas (EC) are both type II germ cell tumor (GCT) entities and develop from the same precursor lesion (carcinoma-in situ, CIS). However, they show significant differences in growth behavior, differentiation potential, and gene expression. Although ECs are prone to differentiate into all three germ layers and give rise to the(More)