Daniel N. Sauder

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Excess exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) results in the appearance of so-called sunburn cells. Although it has been demonstrated that sunburn cells represent apoptotic keratinocytes, the molecular mechanisms for UVB-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes have not been fully elucidated. The cytokine, TNF-alpha, has been shown to induce apoptosis in a(More)
In the epidermal compartment of skin, keratinocytes (KC), Langerhans cells (LC), and their soluble products, i.e. cytokines, constitute a unique immunologic microenvironment. KC participate in cutaneous immune responses by producing various cytokines. LC, a member of the dendritic cell (DC) family, represent the professional antigen-presenting cells in the(More)
The role of CD4(+) vs CD8(+) T cells in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) remains controversial. In this study, we used gene knockout (KO) mice deficient in CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells to directly address this issue. Mice lacking either CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells demonstrated depressed CHS responses to dinitrofluorobenzene and oxazolone compared with wild-type(More)
The migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) to lymph nodes (LN) is critical in the initiation of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses. Studies suggest that contact allergen-induced epidermal proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1 and TNF-alpha, play important roles in promoting LC migration. Contact allergens also induce epidermal(More)
Resiquimod is a Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR8 agonist that is a potent inducer of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and other cytokines. The effects of multiple applications of resiquimod gel were assessed in a randomized, single-blind, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled study with 41 healthy subjects. Over a 3-week period, 1-g doses of resiquimod or(More)
Cytokines are polypeptide growth factors produced by most nucleated cells in the body, including epithelial cells, keratinocytes, and Langerhans cells in the skin. Cytokines can be classified into interleukins, tumor necrosis factors, chemokines, colony-stimulating factor, interferons, and growth factors. Like classic hormones, cytokines bind to specific(More)
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a dendritic-cell (DC)-dependent, T-cell-mediated skin immune response to reactive haptens, has been a subject of intense research for many years. The molecular mechanisms underlying CHS are complicated and are not fully understood. During the past few years, varieties of gene-targeted knockout mice have been used in the study(More)
Human squamous carcinoma (COLO-16) cells release factors which specifically stimulate the synthesis of major acute-phase plasma proteins in human and rodent hepatic cells. Anion exchange, hydroxyapatite, lectin, and gel chromatography of conditioned medium of COLO-16 cells result in separation into three distinct forms of hepatocyte-stimulating factors(More)
A fibronectin (Fn)-binding adhesin of Staphylococcus aureus contains three tandem 37- or 38-amino-acid motifs (D1, D2, and D3), which function to bind Fn. Plasma from patients with S. aureus infections contain antibodies that preferentially recognize ligand induced binding sites in the D motifs and do not inhibit Fn binding (F. Casolini, L. Visai, D. Joh,(More)
Epidemic Canadian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain 1 (CMRSA-1) comprises related subtypes that differ in phenotype and prevalence, with subtypes 1A, 1B, and 1D representing 1%, 71%, and 18%, respectively, of total CMRSA-1 isolates. The predominant CMRSA-1B subtype possesses a variant of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, harboring(More)