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Prototype theory construes membership in a concept's extension as graded, detemzined by similarity to the concept's '3e.W exemplar (or by some other measure of central tendency). The present paper is concerned with the compatibi1it.J of this view of concept membership with two criteria of adequacy for theories of concepts. The first criterion Conrorns ;he(More)
Studies of brain areas supporting deductive reasoning show inconsistent results, possibly because of the variety of tasks and baselines used. In two event-related functional magnetic imaging studies we employed a cognitive load paradigm to isolate the neural correlates of deductive reasoning and address the role (if any) of language in deduction. Healthy(More)
It is easy to construct pairs of sentences X, Y that lead many people to ascribe higher probability to the conjunction X-and-Y than to the conjuncts X, Y. Whether an error is thereby committed depends on reasoners' interpretation of the expressions " probability " and " and. " We report two experiments designed to clarify the normative status of typical(More)
Judging the strength of an argument may underlie many reasoning and decision-making tasks. In this article, we focus on "category-based" arguments, in which the premises and conclusion are of the form All members of C have property P, where C is a natural category. An example is "Dobermans have sesamoid bones. Therefore, German shepherds have sesamoid(More)
Is human thought fully embedded in language, or do some forms of thought operate independently? To directly address this issue, we focus on inference-making, a central feature of human cognition. In a 3T fMRI study we compare logical inferences relying on sentential connectives (e.g., not, or, if ... then) to linguistic inferences based on syntactic(More)
WORDNET, a ubiquitous tool for natural language processing, suffers from sparsity of connections between its component concepts (synsets). Through the use of human annotators, a subset of the connections between 1000 hand-chosen synsets was assigned a value of " evocation " representing how much the first concept brings to mind the second. These data, along(More)
The work of Tversky and Kahneman on intuitive probability judgment leads to the following prediction: The judged probability that an instance belongs to a category is an increasing function of the typicality of the instance in the category. To test this prediction, subjects in Experiment 1 read a description of a person (e.g., "Linda is 31, bright, ...(More)
Deductive and probabilistic reasoning are central to cognition but the functional neuroanatomy underlying them is poorly understood. The present study contrasted these two kinds of reasoning via positron emission tomography. Relying on changes in instruction and psychological 'set', deductive versus probabilistic reasoning was induced using identical(More)