Daniel N. Osherson

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An argument is categorical if its premises and conclusion are of the form All members ofC have property F, where C is a natural category like FALCON or BIRD, and P remains the same across premises and conclusion. An example is Grizzly bears love onions. Therefore, all bears love onions. Such an argument is psychologically strong to the extent that belief in(More)
Prototype theory construes membership in a concept’s extension as graded, detemzined by similarity to the concept’s ‘3e.W exemplar (or by some other measure of central tendency). The present paper is concerned with the compatibi1it.J of this view of concept membership with two criteria of adequacy for theories of concepts. The first criterion Conrorns ;he(More)
We propose a model that accounts for how people construct prototypes for composite concepts out of prototypes for simple concepts. The first component of the model is a prototype representation for simple, noun concepts, such as fruit, which specifies: (1) the relevant attributes of the concepts, (2) the possiblevalues of each attribute, (3) the salience of(More)
WORDNET, a ubiquitous tool for natural language processing, suffers from sparsity of connections between its component concepts (synsets). Through the use of human annotators, a subset of the connections between 1000 hand-chosen synsets was assigned a value of “evocation” representing how much the first concept brings to mind the second. These data, along(More)
Studies of brain areas supporting deductive reasoning show inconsistent results, possibly because of the variety of tasks and baselines used. In two event-related functional magnetic imaging studies we employed a cognitive load paradigm to isolate the neural correlates of deductive reasoning and address the role (if any) of language in deduction. Healthy(More)
Conceptual combination allows for the construction of an infinite number of complex ideas from a finite base. The anterior temporal lobes appear to be important for the process of conceptual combination. In a previous study (Baron et al., 2010) we showed that the neural representation of complex concepts (e.g., young man) in the left anterior temporal lobe(More)
Judgment aggregation theory, which concerns the translation of individual judgments on logical propositions into consistent group judgments, has shown that group consistency generally cannot be guaranteed if each proposition is treated independently from the others. Developing the right method of abandoning independence is thus a high-priority goal.(More)
Is human thought fully embedded in language, or do some forms of thought operate independently? To directly address this issue, we focus on inference-making, a central feature of human cognition. In a 3T fMRI study we compare logical inferences relying on sentential connectives (e.g., not, or, if ... then) to linguistic inferences based on syntactic(More)
We consider a panel of experts asked to assign probabilities to events, both logically simple and complex. The events evaluated by different experts are based on overlapping sets of variables but may otherwise be distinct. The union of all the judgments will likely be probabilistic incoherent. We address the problem of revising the probability estimates of(More)