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The internal compartmentation of eukaryotic cells not only allows separation of biochemical processes but it also creates the requirement for systems that can selectively transport proteins across the membrane boundaries. Although most proteins function in a single subcellular compartment, many are able to enter two or more compartments, a phenomenon known(More)
Algae with secondary plastids such as diatoms maintain two different eukaryotic cytoplasms. One of them, the so-called periplastidal compartment (PPC), is the naturally minimized cytoplasm of a eukaryotic endosymbiont. In order to investigate the protein composition of the PPC of diatoms, we applied knowledge of the targeting signals of PPC-directed(More)
The plastids of cryptophytes, haptophytes, and heterokontophytes (stramenopiles) (together once known as chromists) are surrounded by four membranes, reflecting the origin of these plastids through secondary endosymbiosis. They share this trait with apicomplexans, which are alveolates, the plastids of which have been suggested to stem from the same(More)
Protein import into complex plastids of red algal origin is a multistep process including translocons of different evolutionary origins. The symbiont-derived ERAD-like machinery (SELMA), shown to be of red algal origin, is proposed to be the transport system for preprotein import across the periplastidal membrane of heterokontophytes, haptophytes,(More)
Diatoms are microalgae that possess so-called "complex plastids," which evolved by secondary endosymbiosis and are surrounded by four membranes. Thus, in contrast to primary plastids, which are surrounded by only two membranes, nucleus-encoded proteins of complex plastids face additional barriers, i.e., during evolution, mechanisms had to evolve to(More)
Engulfment of a red or green alga by another eukaryote and subsequent reduction of the symbiont to an organelle, termed a complex plastid, is a process known as secondary endosymbiosis and is shown in a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms. Important members are heterokontophytes, haptophytes, cryptophytes, and apicomplexan parasites, all of them with(More)
Most secondary plastids of red algal origin are surrounded by four membranes and nucleus-encoded plastid proteins have to traverse these barriers. Translocation across the second outermost plastid membrane, the periplastidal membrane (PPM), is facilitated by a ERAD-(ER-associated degradation) derived machinery termed SELMA (symbiont-specific ERAD-like(More)
The establishment of a metabolic connection between host and symbiont is a crucial step in the evolution of an obligate endosymbiotic relationship. Such was the case in the evolution of mitochondria and plastids. Whereas the mechanisms of metabolite shuttling between the plastid and host cytosol are relatively well studied in Archaeplastida-organisms that(More)
Nuclear-encoded pre-proteins being imported into complex plastids of red algal origin have to cross up to five membranes. Thereby, transport across the second outermost or periplastidal membrane (PPM) is facilitated by SELMA (symbiont-specific ERAD-like machinery), an endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-derived machinery. Core components of(More)
Predicting the sub-cellular localization of proteins is an important task in bioinformatics, for which many standard prediction tools are available. While these tools are powerful in general and capable of predicting protein localization for the most common compartments, their performance strongly depends on the organism of interest. More importantly, there(More)