Learn More
Algae with secondary plastids such as diatoms maintain two different eukaryotic cytoplasms. One of them, the so-called periplastidal compartment (PPC), is the naturally minimized cytoplasm of a eukaryotic endosymbiont. In order to investigate the protein composition of the PPC of diatoms, we applied knowledge of the targeting signals of PPC-directed(More)
Engulfment of a red or green alga by another eukaryote and subsequent reduction of the symbiont to an organelle, termed a complex plastid, is a process known as secondary endosymbiosis and is shown in a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms. Important members are heterokontophytes, haptophytes, cryptophytes, and apicomplexan parasites, all of them with(More)
The establishment of a metabolic connection between host and symbiont is a crucial step in the evolution of an obligate endosymbiotic relationship. Such was the case in the evolution of mitochondria and plastids. Whereas the mechanisms of metabolite shuttling between the plastid and host cytosol are relatively well studied in Archaeplastida-organisms that(More)
Protein import into complex plastids of red algal origin is a multistep process including translocons of different evolutionary origins. The symbiont-derived ERAD-like machinery (SELMA), shown to be of red algal origin, is proposed to be the transport system for preprotein import across the periplastidal membrane of heterokontophytes, haptophytes,(More)
The internal compartmentation of eukaryotic cells not only allows separation of biochemical processes but it also creates the requirement for systems that can selectively transport proteins across the membrane boundaries. Although most proteins function in a single subcellular compartment, many are able to enter two or more compartments, a phenomenon known(More)
The plastids of cryptophytes, haptophytes, and heterokontophytes (stramenopiles) (together once known as chromists) are surrounded by four membranes, reflecting the origin of these plastids through secondary endosymbiosis. They share this trait with apicomplexans, which are alveolates, the plastids of which have been suggested to stem from the same(More)
Most secondary plastids of red algal origin are surrounded by four membranes and nucleus-encoded plastid proteins have to traverse these barriers. Translocation across the second outermost plastid membrane, the periplastidal membrane (PPM), is facilitated by a ERAD-(ER-associated degradation) derived machinery termed SELMA (symbiont-specific ERAD-like(More)
Diatoms are microalgae that possess so-called "complex plastids," which evolved by secondary endosymbiosis and are surrounded by four membranes. Thus, in contrast to primary plastids, which are surrounded by only two membranes, nucleus-encoded proteins of complex plastids face additional barriers, i.e., during evolution, mechanisms had to evolve to(More)
Nuclear-encoded pre-proteins being imported into complex plastids of red algal origin have to cross up to five membranes. Thereby, transport across the second outermost or periplastidal membrane (PPM) is facilitated by SELMA (symbiont-specific ERAD-like machinery), an endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-derived machinery. Core components of(More)
Nonphotosynthetic plastids retain important biological functions and are indispensable for cell viability. However, the detailed processes underlying the loss of plastidal functions other than photosynthesis remain to be fully understood. In this study, we used transcriptomics, subcellular localization, and phylogenetic analyses to characterize the(More)