Daniel M. Shafer

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In three experiments with U.S. undergraduates, effects of three levels of naturally mapped control interfaces were compared on a player’s sense of presence, interactivity, realism, and enjoyment in video games. The three levels of naturally mapped control interfaces were: kinesic natural mapping (using the player’s body as a game controller), incomplete(More)
This study tested a model of enjoyment of video games focused on three important predictors; interactivity, realism and spatial presence. In a large, randomized experiment (N = 257), players of traditional console games were compared with their counterparts playing on mobile devices. The hypothesized model included perceived interactivity, perceived reality(More)
This study explores how a video game player’s sense of being in a game world (i.e., spatial presence) is impacted by the use of a virtual reality head-mounted display (VR HMD). Research focused on VR (as realized with the use of HMDs) has fallen by the wayside since the early 1990s due to the limitations in the technology. With modern reimagining of VR(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the processes leading to enjoyment of casual videogames on both mobile devices and console systems. Building upon a foundation in mental models theory and the psychology of play, the study focuses on how performance and experience-based variables impact enjoyment of casual videogames played on mobile devices and console(More)
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