Daniel M. S. Raper

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Inflammation is a critical process behind cerebral aneurysm formation and rupture. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a key immune modulator that has been implicated in cerebral aneurysm pathophysiology. This may occur through TNF-α-mediated endothelial injury, smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation, recruitment of macrophages, activation of(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) maintain significant plasticity. Following environmental stimulation, SMC can alter their phenotype from one primarily concerned with contraction to a pro-inflammatory and matrix remodeling phenotype. This is a critical process behind peripheral vascular disease and atherosclerosis, a key element of cerebral aneurysm(More)
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