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To study the potential effects of increased biofuel use, we evaluated six representative analyses of fuel ethanol. Studies that reported negative net energy incorrectly ignored coproducts and used some obsolete data. All studies indicated that current corn ethanol technologies are much less petroleum-intensive than gasoline but have greenhouse gas emissions(More)
  • Michael, Ferrantino, Fontagne Lionel, Joseph, Francois, Jackson Leeann +17 others
  • 2010
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We analyzed the mortality impacts and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced by household energy use in Africa. Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, household indoor air pollution will cause an estimated 9.8 million premature deaths by the year 2030. Gradual and rapid transitions to charcoal would delay 1.0 million and 2.8 million deaths,(More)
Acute and chronic respiratory diseases, which are causally linked to exposure to indoor air pollution in developing countries, are the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Efforts to develop effective intervention strategies and detailed quantification of the exposure-response relationship for indoor particulate matter require accurate estimates(More)
Keywords: Green jobs Renewable energy employment Energy efficiency employment a b s t r a c t An analytical job creation model for the US power sector from 2009 to 2030 is presented. The model synthesizes data from 15 job studies covering renewable energy (RE), energy efficiency (EE), carbon capture and storage (CCS) and nuclear power. The paper employs a(More)
Globally, almost 3 billion people rely on biomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues, and dung) and coal as their primary source of domestic energy. Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the combustion of solid fuels is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the relationship(More)
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of burden of disease worldwide and have been causally linked with exposure to pollutants from domestic biomass fuels in developing countries. We used longitudinal health data coupled with detailed monitoring and estimation of personal exposure from more than 2 years of field measurements in rural(More)
This Viewpoint examines data on international trends in energy research and development (R&D) funding, patterns of U.S. energy technology patents and R&D funding, and U.S. R&D intensities across selected sectors. The data present a disturbing picture: (i) Energy technology funding levels have declined significantly during the past two decades throughout the(More)
We describe a new theoretical scenario for the development of orientation selective cells in a self-organizing feedforward network with modifiable synapses. A suitable choice of Hebb rule leads to a system that develops symmetric and antisymmetric response fields (quadrature pairs) at the same time as directional selectivity occurs using inhibition between(More)
We analyze the dynamic behavior of large two-dimensional systems of limit-cycle oscillators with random intrinsic frequencies that interact via time-delayed nearest-neighbor coupling. We find that even small delay times lead to a novel form of frequency depression where the system decays to stable states which oscillate at a delay and interaction-dependent(More)