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The syndrome of increased intracranial pressure without hydrocephalus or mass lesion and with normal CSF composition, previously referred to as pseudotumor cerebri, is a diagnosis of exclusion now termed idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Diagnostic criteria of this disorder have not been updated since the Modified Dandy Criteria were articulated(More)
Dysthyroid orbitopathy (DO) is an autoimmune disorder usually associated with Graves' disease. The extra-ocular muscles are the target of the autoimmune attack. As a result, they become enlarged, producing restrictive ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Other cardinal signs of DO include upper eyelid retraction and lag, conjunctival injection and chemosis, and(More)
The causes of ophthalmoplegia in 24 consecutive patients with neurologically isolated, relative pupil-sparing third nerve palsy included infarction in 10 patients, compression by tumors or aneurysms in 10 patients, and miscellaneous disorders in four patients. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with pain, degree of external(More)
Trauma-induced superior oblique palsy usually results from contusion or avulsion of the trochlear nerve or from decompensation of a congenital trochlear nerve palsy. Severe craniocerebral trauma is often associated with the former mechanism, whereas more minor closed-head injuries can decompensate a congenital phoria. We report a patient who developed an(More)
OBJECTIVE The primary purpose was to investigate whether serum vitamin A concentration is associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The secondary aim was to obtain pilot data regarding the amount of vitamin A ingested by patients and controls. BACKGROUND Vitamin A is an attractive candidate mediator of IIH as many of the symptoms and(More)
The authors describe five patients with trochlear nerve palsy and MS to characterize this rare association. In two patients, trochlear nerve palsy was the initial clinical manifestation of MS. In the other three patients, this sign occurred after previous neurologic events. MRI did not identify a lesion of the fourth nerve nucleus or fascicle.(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency and clinical correlates of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody seropositivity in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive new patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy diagnosed in an outpatient neuro-ophthalmology practice underwent determination of AChR-binding antibodies. Clinical(More)
We report the clinical and neuropathologic findings of a 63-year-old woman who died following an accidental lithium overdose that produced coma, respiratory depression, horizontal gaze palsy, and downbeating nystagmus. She also had mild hypomagnesemia. The pathology was cytotoxicity, predominantly in the regions of the nuclei prepositus hypoglossi and(More)
Two elderly men developed photosensitivity and light-induced glare, transient visual symptoms, and progressive visual loss several months before small cell carcinoma of the lung was discovered. Both patients had impaired visual acuity and color vision, ring scotomas, and attenuated retinal arteriole caliber. Electroretinography demonstrated abnormal cone(More)