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In keeping with our promise earlier in this review, we summarize here the process by which we believe spatial cues are used for localizing a sound source in a free-field listening situation. We believe it entails two parallel processes: 1. The azimuth of the source is determined using differences in interaural time or interaural intensity, whichever is(More)
By conventional spike count measures, auditory neurons in the cat's anterior ectosylvian sulcus cortical area are broadly tuned for the location of a sound source. Nevertheless, an artificial neural network was trained to classify the temporal spike patterns of single neurons according to sound location. The spike patterns of 73 percent of single neurons(More)
In adaptive psychophysical procedures, the stimulus should be presented at a relatively high level rather than near the middle of the psychometric function, which is often defined as the "threshold" value. For some psychometric functions, the optimal stimulus placement level produces 84% to 94% correct responses in a two-alternative forced-choice task. This(More)
We evaluated two hypothetical codes for sound-source location in the auditory cortex. The topographical code assumed that single neurons are selective for particular locations and that sound-source locations are coded by the cortical location of small populations of maximally activated neurons. The distributed code assumed that the responses of individual(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the incidence of and risks for congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, pericardial disease, and valvular abnormalities among adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancers. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING 26 institutions that participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. PARTICIPANTS 14,358 five(More)
A multiple regression analysis of sequential effects in magnitude estimation and absolute identification is presented as an alternative to the approach used by Lockhead and his students. The new analysis indicates that sequential effects do not extend over more than one trial. This is in agreement with the response ratio hypothesis. A more detailed multiple(More)
A maximum-likelihood procedure for estimating threshold values in a yes-no task is presented. In computer simulations of this procedure, it is demonstrated that the variability of the threshold estimates is little affected by the density of the hypotheses tested for a fixed range, or by serious misestimates of the slope of the psychometric functions. The(More)
In most experimental situations, it is expected that observers will achieve perfect detection at extremely high signal levels. Technically, it is assumed that the asymptote of the psychometric function is unity. In many practical psychophysical tests, such as those involving children, patients, or nonhuman animals, the observers are occasionally(More)
This is a brief report on the use of maximum-likelihood (ML) estimators in auditory psychophysics. Slope parameters of psychometric functions are characterized for three nonintensive auditory tasks: forced-choice discrimination of interaural time differences (delta ITD), frequency (delta f), and duration (delta t). Using these slope estimates, the ML method(More)