Learn More
The mesial premotor cortex (pre-supplementary motor area and supplementary motor area proper), lateral premotor cortex (dorsal premotor cortex and ventral premotor cortex), and primary sensorimotor cortex (primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex) have been identified as key cortical areas for sensorimotor function. However, the(More)
BACKGROUND In the midbrain of patients with Parkinson disease (PD), there is a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the ventrolateral and caudal substantia nigra (SN). In a mouse model of PD, investigators have administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and found that measures derived using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were(More)
We examined the patterns of joint kinematics and torques in two kinds of sagittal plane reaching movements. One consisted of movements from a fixed initial position with the arm partially outstretched, to different targets, equidistant from the initial position and located according to the hours of a clock. The other series added movements from different(More)
1. Normal human subjects made discrete elbow flexions and extensions in the horizontal plane from a stationary initial position to visually defined targets at different distances with a constant inertial load or made flexions to a visually defined target with different inertial loads. We measured joint angle, acceleration, and electromyograms (EMGs) from(More)
Previous neuroimaging studies have found hyperactivation in the cerebellum and motor cortex and hypoactivation in the basal ganglia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) but the relationship between the two has not been established. This study examined whether cerebellar and motor cortex hyperactivation is a compensatory mechanism for hypoactivation in(More)
The basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop is an important neural circuit that regulates motor control. A key parameter that the nervous system regulates is the level of force to exert against an object during tasks such as grasping. Previous studies indicate that the basal ganglia do not exhibit increased activity with increasing amplitude of force, although(More)
The two experiments of this study exploited individual variation in timing ability to ask whether the production of time intervals by different motor effecters and the judgement of perceptually based time intervals all share common timing mechanisms. In one task subjects produced a series of taps, attempting to maintain constant intervals between them.(More)
Despite an intricate understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying visual and motor systems, it is not completely understood in which brain regions humans transfer visual information into motor commands. Furthermore, in the absence of visual information, the retrieval process for motor memory information remains unclear. We report an investigation where(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacologic interventions (e.g., beta blockers) and thalamic lesions have failed to alter the pathophysiology of essential tremor (ET) beyond a reduction in tremor amplitude. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus successfully reduces tremor rating scores. It is unknown how VIM DBS alters the(More)
To aid the development of symptomatic and disease modifying therapies in Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a strong need to identify noninvasive measures of basal ganglia (BG) function that are sensitive to disease severity. This study examines the relation between blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activation in every nucleus of the BG and(More)