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PURPOSE Elevated hydrostatic pressure induces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis in culture. The authors investigated whether the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, which contributes to pressure sensing and Ca(2+)-dependent cell death in other systems, also contributes to pressure-induced RGC death and whether this contribution(More)
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are predominantly those affecting skin and soft tissues. Although progress has been made, our knowledge of the molecules that contribute to the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA skin infections is incomplete. We tested the hypothesis that alpha-hemolysin (Hla) contributes to the(More)
Plague, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis, primarily affects rodents but is also an important zoonotic disease of humans. Bubonic plague in humans follows transmission by infected fleas and is characterized by an acute, necrotizing lymphadenitis in the regional lymph nodes that drain the intradermal flea bite site. Septicemia rapidly(More)
PURPOSE To establish an organ dose database for pediatric and adolescent reference individuals undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations by using Monte Carlo simulation. The data will permit rapid estimates of organ and effective doses for patients of different age, gender, examination type, and CT scanner model. METHODS The Monte Carlo simulation(More)
METHODS. trpv1 mRNA expression in RGCs was probed with the use of PCR and TRPV1 protein localization through immunocytochemistry. Subunit-specific antagonism (iodo-resiniferatoxin) and agonism (capsaicin) were used to probe how TRPV1 activation affects the survival of isolated RGCs at ambient and elevated hydrostatic pressure ( 70 mm Hg). Finally, for RGCs(More)
Yersinia pestis is transmitted by fleas and causes bubonic plague, characterized by severe local lymphadenitis that progresses rapidly to systemic infection and life-threatening septicemia. Here, we show that although flea-borne transmission usually leads to bubonic plague in mice, it can also lead to primary septicemic plague. However, intradermal(More)
PURPOSE To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantoms METHODS The(More)
Yersinia pestis diverged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis</= 20 000 years ago, during which time it evolved to be transmitted by fleas. In comparing the ability of these closely related species to infect the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis, we found that Y. pseudotuberculosis, unlike Y. pestis, is orally toxic to fleas. Fleas showed signs of acute toxicity,(More)
The virulence of the pathogenic Yersinia species depends on a plasmid-encoded type III secretion system that transfers six Yop effector proteins into host cells. One of these proteins, YopJ, has been shown to disrupt host cell signaling pathways involved in proinflammatory cytokine production and to induce macrophage apoptosis in vitro. YopJ-dependent(More)
In utero acquistion of protective levels of neutralizing antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV) was observed in four litters of colostrum-deprived gnotobiotic and specific-pathogen-free puppies. Pregnant bitches with high antibody titers passively transferred antibody to these pups transplacentally in average titers of 1:7 to 1:16 per litter. Maternally(More)