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The principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system, L-glutamate, acts on three classes of ionotripic glutamate receptors, named after the agonists AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxalole-4-propionic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and kainate. The development of selective pharmacological agents has led to a(More)
The ability of synapses to modify their synaptic strength in response to activity is a fundamental property of the nervous system and may be an essential component of learning and memory. There are three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptor, namely NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) and(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-subtype of glutamate receptors has been well described as a result of the early appearance of NMDA antagonists, but no potent antagonist for the "non-NMDA" glutamate receptors has been available. Quinoxalinediones have now been found to be potent and competitive antagonists at non-NMDA glutamate receptors. These compounds(More)
Activation of kainate receptors depresses excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. In the present study, we have utilised a GluR5 selective agonist, ATPA [(RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid], and a GluR5 selective antagonist, LY294486 [(3SR,4aRS,6SR,8aRS)-6-([[(1H-tetrazol-5-y(More)
The interaction of two dissociative anaesthetics, ketamine and phencyclidine, with the responses of spinal neurones to the electrophoretic administration of amino acids and acetylcholine was studied in decerebrate or pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats and rats. Both ketamine and phencyclidine selectively blocked excitation by N-methyl-aspartate (NMA) with(More)
Memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantan) was tested as an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors on cultured superior collicular and hippocampal neurones using the patch clamp technique and its actions were compared to those of Mg2+ ions, ketamine, dextrorphan, dextromethorphan, phencyclidine and dizocilpine (MK-801). Memantine (2-33 microM)(More)
Understanding the roles of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors has been severely hampered by the lack of potent antagonists. LY341495 (2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-y l)propanoic acid) has been shown to block group II mGlu receptors in low nanomolar concentrations (Kingston, A.E., Ornstein, P.L., Wright, R.A., Johnson, B.G.,(More)
We have examined the effects of ketamine and kynurenate on the initial response and frequency dependent potentiation of response (wind-up) of class 2 neurones of the rat dorsal horn induced by repeated electrical stimulation of their receptive fields. Iontophoretic kynurenate reduced both the initial response and the wind-up. Iontophoretic or intravenous(More)
The activity and selectivity of the glutamate receptor antagonists belonging to the 2,3-benzodiazepine class of compounds have been examined at recombinant human non-NMDA glutamate receptors expressed in HEK293 cells and on native rat NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in vitro. The racemic 2,3-benzodiazepines GYKI52466, LY293606 (GYKI53405) and LY300168(More)