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Two large-scale yeast two-hybrid screens were undertaken to identify protein-protein interactions between full-length open reading frames predicted from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome sequence. In one approach, we constructed a protein array of about 6,000 yeast transformants, with each transformant expressing one of the open reading frames as a fusion(More)
We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a novel helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein, Id. Id is missing the basic region adjacent to the HLH domain that is essential for specific DNA binding in another HLH protein, MyoD. An in vitro translation product of Id can associate specifically with at least three HLH proteins (MyoD, E12, and E47) and attenuate their(More)
Evidence that pre-mRNA processing events are temporally and, in some cases, mechanistically coupled to transcription has led to the proposal that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruits pre-mRNA splicing factors to active genes. Here we address two key questions raised by this proposal: (i) whether the U1 snRNP, which binds to the 5' splice site of each intron,(More)
MyoD is a skeletal muscle-specific protein that is able to induce myogenesis in a wide variety of cell types. In this report, we show that MyoD is a DNA binding protein capable of specific interaction with two regions of the mouse muscle creatine kinase gene upstream enhancer, both of which are required for full muscle-specific enhancer activity. MyoD(More)
MyoD is a master regulatory gene for myogenesis. Its product, the MyoD protein, appears to act by binding to muscle-specific enhancer sequences. We show that MyoD binds cooperatively to two sites in the muscle-specific creatine kinase enhancer; this is dramatically reflected in dissociation-rate measurements. A deletion of the acidic N terminus (residues(More)
In S. cerevisiae, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules, in spite of their high copy number, segregate as if there were a small number of heritable units. The rapid segregation of mitochondrial genomes can be analyzed using mtDNA deletion variants. These small, amplified genomes segregate preferentially from mixed zygotes relative to wild-type mtDNA. This(More)
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 contain two classes of origins of DNA replication, oriS and oriL, which are closely related. A series of plasmids was constructed which contained specifically altered versions of the HSV type 2 oriS replication origin. Their ability to replicate in an in vivo replicon assay allowed a core origin of 75 base pairs (bp)(More)
Replication forks, moving opposite to the direction of transcription, are arrested at the 3' ends of the 35S transcription units in the rDNA locus of S. cerevisiae. Because of its position and polarity, we tested the hypothesis that this replication fork barrier (RFB) results from the act of transcription. Three results contradict this hypothesis. First,(More)
A procedure has been developed whereby the relative amounts of the topoisomers of E. coli plasmid can be determined for cells grown under a variety of conditions. Several applications of the procedure are presented. Addition of either novobiocin or oxolinic acid, two inhibitors of DNA gyrase, gives rise to positively supercoiled plasmid. A likely model for(More)