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A third signal that can be provided by IL-12 or type I IFN is required for differentiation of naive CD8 T cells responding to Ag and costimulation. The cytokines program development of function and memory within 3 days of initial stimulation, and we show here that programming involves regulation of a common set of approximately 355 genes including T-bet and(More)
Recently, static and dynamic imaging methods have produced the first glimpses of the interactions between antigen-specific T cells and peptide-MHC-bearing antigen-presenting cells in the lymph nodes. Using data from these experiments, we produced a numerically, spatially, and temporally scaled simulation of the first 50 hr of the primary T cell-dependent(More)
T cells activated by antigen receptor stimulation in the absence of accessory cell-derived costimulatory signals lose the capacity to synthesize the growth factor interleukin-2 (IL-2), a state called clonal anergy. An analysis of CD3- and CD28-induced signal transduction revealed reduced ERK and JNK enzyme activities in murine anergic T cells. The amounts(More)
Thymic positive and negative selection events generate a T-cell repertoire that is MHC restricted and self-tolerant. The number of T cells undergoing positive and negative selection in normal mice has never been firmly established. We generated mice that lack the proapoptotic molecule Bim (bcl2l11) together with a Nur77(GFP) transgene, which allowed the(More)
Recent experiments have elucidated two molecular mechanisms that may account for the failure of anergic T cell clones to initiate IL-2 gene transcription following TCR stimulation. First, a block has been identified in the ERK and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways; the block results from a failure to activate p21ras. It leads to reduced(More)
Developing lymphocytes undergo extensive cell death during selection of the immune repertoire. We investigated the influence of bcl-xL, a member of the bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulatory genes, on apoptosis in a model system for negative selection in the B lymphoid lineage. Overexpression of bcl-xL in WEHI 231 immature mouse B cells blocked apoptosis(More)
E3 ubiquitin ligases have emerged as key molecular regulators of immune cell function. Three families of proteins with ubiquitin ligase activity have been described (the HECT, RING and U-box proteins), and each may be involved in the regulation of immune responses during infection by targeting specific inhibitory molecules for proteolytic destruction.(More)
The presentation of self-peptide-MHC complexes in the periphery to potentially autoreactive T cells that have escaped negative selection in the thymus poses an important problem to the immune system. In this review, I discuss data that reveal barriers preventing peripheral T cell recognition of self-peptide-MHC complexes, as well as the physiological(More)
Optimal clonal expansion of CD4(+) T cells during the primary response to Ag requires prolonged TCR recognition of peptide Ag/MHC complexes. In this study, we investigated the capacity of Casitas B-lineage lymphoma b (Cbl-b) to counter-regulate late TCR signals necessary for continued cell division in vivo. During the first 24 h of a primary response to Ag,(More)
Anergic CD4+ Th cells do not produce IL-2 when challenged with Ag-pulsed accessory cells because of a transcriptional defect. In this work, we report that these anergic T cells are defective in their ability to up-regulate protein binding and transactivation at two critical IL-2 DNA enhancer elements: NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T cells; a sequence(More)