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A third signal that can be provided by IL-12 or type I IFN is required for differentiation of naive CD8 T cells responding to Ag and costimulation. The cytokines program development of function and memory within 3 days of initial stimulation, and we show here that programming involves regulation of a common set of approximately 355 genes including T-bet and(More)
LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 can enhance TCR-dependent proliferation of T cells, but it has been difficult to distinguish contributions from increased adhesion, and thus TCR occupancy, versus costimulatory signaling. Whether LFA-1 ligation results in generation of a unique costimulatory signal(s) distinct from those activated by the TCR has been unclear. Using(More)
B cell tolerance to self-antigen is critical to preventing antibody-mediated autoimmunity. Previous work using B cell antigen receptor transgenic animals suggested that self-antigen-specific B cells are either deleted from the repertoire, enter a state of diminished function termed anergy, or are ignorant to the presence of self-antigen. These mechanisms(More)
T cells activated by antigen receptor stimulation in the absence of accessory cell-derived costimulatory signals lose the capacity to synthesize the growth factor interleukin-2 (IL-2), a state called clonal anergy. An analysis of CD3- and CD28-induced signal transduction revealed reduced ERK and JNK enzyme activities in murine anergic T cells. The amounts(More)
The induction of clonal anergy in a T cell inhibits IL-2 secretion because of the development of a proximal signal transduction defect. Fusion of anergic murine T cells to human Jurkat T leukemia cells and formation of heterokaryons failed to result in a complementation of this signaling defect and restoration of murine IL-2 mRNA inducibility. Instead,(More)
BACKGROUND Mutation of a tumor suppressor allele leaves the second as backup. Not necessarily so with p53. This homo-tetrameric transcription factor can become contaminated with mutant p53 through hetero-tetramerization. In addition, it can be out-competed by the binding to p53 DNA recognition motifs of transactivation-incompetent isoforms (DeltaN and(More)
The role of apoptosis in affinity maturation was investigated by determining the affinity of (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP)-specific antibody-forming cells (AFCs) and serum antibody in transgenic mice that overexpress a suppressor of apoptosis, Bcl-xL, in the B cell compartment. Although transgenic animals briefly expressed higher numbers of splenic(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis develops in association with a defect in peripheral CD4(+) T cell homeostasis. T cell lymphopenia has also been shown to be a barrier to CD4(+) T cell clonal anergy induction. We therefore explored the relationship between clonal anergy induction and the avoidance of autoimmune arthritis by tracking the fate of glucose-6-phosphate(More)
To investigate the role of TCR signaling in the exit of CD4+ T cells from cell cycle, we took advantage of a low frequency TEa T cell adoptive transfer technique as well as the Y-Ae mAb to interrupt Ag/MHC recognition before the completion of clonal expansion. Termination of TCR signaling after 36 h of Ag exposure caused an immediate reduction in cell size(More)