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REQUIREMENT OF STUDENTS: Primary Lecture Course with Computation problems to demonstrate the practical application of genetic theories of relationships and connectiveness. Two test (midterm and final), eight (8) homework assignments. Grades: 70% Two cumulative test (30% & 40%) 30% Homework and computer simulations. Course Synopsis: Population genetics is(More)
Five point mutations in a particular beta-lactamase allele jointly increase bacterial resistance to a clinically important antibiotic by a factor of approximately 100,000. In principle, evolution to this high-resistance beta-lactamase might follow any of the 120 mutational trajectories linking these alleles. However, we demonstrate that 102 trajectories are(More)
The mutation process ultimately defines the genetic features of all populations and, hence, has a bearing on a wide range of issues involving evolutionary genetics, inheritance, and genetic disorders, including the predisposition to cancer. Nevertheless, formidable technical barriers have constrained our understanding of the rate at which mutations arise(More)
Pseudogenes are common in mammals but virtually absent in Drosophila. All putative Drosophila pseudogenes show patterns of molecular evolution that are inconsistent with the lack of functional constraints. The absence of bona fide pseudogenes is not only puzzling, it also hampers attempts to estimate rates and patterns of neutral DNA change. The estimation(More)
Comparison of the gene-expression profiles between adults of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans has uncovered the evolution of genes that exhibit sex-dependent regulation. Approximately half the genes showed differences in expression between the species, and among these, approximately 83% involved a gain, loss, increase, decrease, or reversal(More)
Population geneticists have long sought to estimate the distribution of selection intensities among genes of diverse function across the genome. Only recently have DNA sequencing and analytical techniques converged to make this possible. Important advances have come from comparing genetic variation within species (polymorphism) with fixed differences(More)
To estimate patterns of molecular evolution of unconstrained DNA sequences, we used maximum parsimony to separate phylogenetic trees of a non-long terminal repeat retrotransposable element into either internal branches, representing mainly the constrained evolution of active lineages, or into terminal branches, representing mainly nonfunctional(More)
BACKGROUND Methods of microarray analysis that suit experimentalists using the technology are vital. Many methodologies discard the quantitative results inherent in cDNA microarray comparisons or cannot be flexibly applied to multifactorial experimental design. Here we present a flexible, quantitative Bayesian framework. This framework can be used to(More)
In this article we explore statistical properties of the maximum-likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the selection and mutation parameters in a Poisson random field population genetics model of directional selection at DNA sites. We derive the asymptotic variances and covariance of the MLEs and explore the power of the likelihood ratio tests (LRT) of neutrality(More)
Identifying the properties of gene networks that influence their evolution is a fundamental research goal. However, modes of evolution cannot be inferred solely from the distribution of natural variation, because selection interacts with demography and mutation rates to shape polymorphism and divergence. We estimated the effects of naturally occurring(More)