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Infantile spasms syndrome (ISS) is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy with motor spasms, persistent seizures, mental retardation, and in some cases, autism. One of its monogenic causes is an insertion mutation [c.304ins (GCG)(7)] on the X chromosome, expanding the first polyalanine tract of the interneuron-specific transcription factor Aristaless-related(More)
Allelic mutations of Scn8a in the mouse have revealed the range of neurological disorders that can result from alternations of one neuronal sodium channel. Null mutations produce the most severe phenotype, with motor neuron failure leading to paralysis and juvenile lethality. Two less severe mutations cause ataxia, tremor, muscle weakness, and dystonia. The(More)
Ca2+ currents, especially those activated at low voltages (LVA), influence burst generation in thalamocortical circuitry and enhance the abnormal rhythmicity associated with absence epilepsy. Mutations in several genes for high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ channel subunits are linked to spike-wave seizure phenotypes in mice; however, none of these mutations(More)
Neuronal voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are heteromultimers of alpha1, beta, and alpha2delta subunits, and any one of five alpha1 subunits (alpha1A-E) may associate with one of four beta subunits (beta1-4). The specific alpha1-beta combination assembled determines single-channel properties, while variation in the proportion of each combination contributes(More)
Ca2+ channel beta subunits regulate voltage-dependent calcium currents through direct interaction with alpha 1 subunits. The beta- and alpha 1-binding motifs are conserved, and all beta subunits can stimulate current amplitude, voltage dependence, and kinetics when coexpressed with various alpha 1 subunits. We used a positional candidate approach to(More)
Genetic analyses of familial epilepsies over the past decade have identified mutations in several different ion channel genes that result in neonatal or early-onset seizure disorders, including benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC), generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), and severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI). These genes(More)
The spatial coordination of neurotransmitter receptors with other postsynaptic signaling and structural molecules is regulated by a diverse array of cell-specific scaffolding proteins. The synaptic trafficking of AMPA receptors by the stargazin protein in some neurons, for example, depends on specific interactions between the C terminus of stargazin and the(More)
Calcium ion channel mutations disrupt channel function and create recognizable disease phenotypes in the nervous system. The broad array of underlying cellular alterations is commensurate with the expanding genetic diversity of the voltage-gated calcium ion channel complex and its critical role in regulating cell function. Currently, 16 calcium channel(More)
Nineteen genes encoding alpha1, beta, gamma, or alpha2delta voltage-dependent calcium channel subunits have been identified to date. Recent studies have found that three of these genes are mutated in mice with generalised cortical spike-wave discharges (models of human absence epilepsy), emphasising the importance of calcium channels in regulating the(More)
Mutations in the Cacng2 gene encoding the neuronal transmembrane protein stargazin result in recessively inherited epilepsy and ataxia in "stargazer" mice. Functional studies suggest a dual role for stargazin, both as a modulatory gamma subunit for voltage-dependent calcium channels and as a regulator of post-synaptic membrane targeting for(More)