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The utility of the back-propagation method in establishing suitable weights in a distributed adaptive network has been demonstrated repeatedly. Unfortunately, in many applications, the number of iterations required before convergence can be large. Modifications to the back-propagation algorithm described by Rumelhart et al. (1986) can greatly accelerate(More)
  • W Zhao, H Chen, +4 authors D L Alkon
  • 1999
Evidence accumulated from clinical and basic research has indirectly implicated the insulin receptor (IR) in brain cognitive functions, including learning and memory (Wickelgren, I. (1998) Science 280, 517-519). The present study investigates correlative changes in IR expression, phosphorylation, and associated signaling molecules in the rat hippocampus(More)
A single identified neuron was repeatedly isolated by axotomy from the central nervous system of the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis. An early voltage-dependent outward K+ current of this neuron was reduced and more rapidly inactivated for animals previously trained with paired but not randomized light and rotation. Since this current change can(More)
The recent demonstration of K+ channel dysfunction in fibroblasts from Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and past observations of Ca(2+)-mediated K+ channel modulation during memory storage suggested that AD, which is characterized by memory loss and other cognitive deficits, might also involve dysfunction of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Bombesin-induced(More)
Alterations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism, calcium regulation, oxidative metabolism, and transduction systems have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Limitations to the use of postmortem brain for examining molecular mechanisms underscore the need to develop a human tissue model representative of the pathophysiological processes(More)
Cumulative depolarization of Hermissenda type B photoreceptors, a short-term neural correlate of associative learning, was produced by simulating associative training in the isolated nervous system (in vitro conditioning). This simulation entailed stimulation and recording from three classes of neurons normally affected by the associative training(More)
Learning behavior similar to vertebrate classical conditioning was demonstrated for the mollusc Hermissenda crassicornis. Postsynaptic membrane changes within well-defined neural systems that mediate the learning play a casual role in recording the learned association for later recall. Specific ionic currents in neural tissue undergo transformations lasting(More)
Intradendritic recordings in Purkinje cells from a defined area in parasaggital slices of cerebellar lobule HVI, obtained after rabbits were given either paired (classical conditioning) or explicitly unpaired (control) presentations of tone and periorbital electrical stimulation, were used to assess the nature and duration of conditioning-specific changes(More)