Daniel Kroeger

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Histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) are an important component of the ascending arousal system and may form part of a "flip-flop switch" hypothesized to regulate sleep and wakefulness. Anatomical studies have shown that the wake-active TMN and sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) are reciprocally connected, suggesting(More)
A series of discoveries spanning the last decade have uncovered a new neurotransmitter - hypocretin - and its role in energy metabolism, arousal, and addiction. Also, notably, a lack of hypocretin function has been unequivocally associated with the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Here we review these findings and discuss how they will influence future treatments(More)
The pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) nucleus has long been implicated in the regulation of cortical activity and behavioral states, including rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. For example, electrical stimulation of the PPT region during sleep leads to rapid awakening, whereas lesions of the PPT in cats reduce REM sleep. Though these effects have been linked(More)
1. The actions of morphine were studied on the segmental reflex of the decerebrate-spinal cat. Morphine decreased arterial blood pressure.2. Morphine inhibited mono- and polysynaptic reflexes. The influence of morphine on monosynaptic reflexes was more obvious at stimulation of the dorsal root at a frequency of 12.5 Hz than at 0.5 or 2.5 Hz.3. The total(More)
Penicillin G administered parenterally or penicillin V administered orally are currently the antibiotics of choice for treatment of dental infections of usual etiology. Infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci or those involving gram-negative bacteria should be treated with a penicillinase-resistant penicillin or an ampicillin-like(More)
Irritant dermatosis is a non-specific reactive change on the skin. In most cases it represents the summated effects induced by various agents. Not only the shortened recovery phases of the skin but also a dispositional factor are important. Such changes, which are relatively common in some vocations but are usually only slight, cannot, as a rule, be(More)