Learn More
Isoflurane is a widely used anesthetic which safely and reversibly induces deep coma and associated burst suppression (BS) electroencephalographic patterns. Here we investigate possible underlying causes for the state of cortical hyperexcitability which was recently shown to be one of the characteristics of BS. Our hypothesis was that cortical inhibition is(More)
This study aims at understanding complex interactions between cortical neurons, glia and blood supply developing during the transition from slow-wave sleep to wakefulness. In spite of essential advances from in vitro and culture preparations, the basic mechanisms of glial interactions with their cellular and ionic environment had remained uninvestigated in(More)
Memories are consolidated and strengthened during sleep. Here we show that memories can also be weakened during sleep. We used a fear-conditioning paradigm in mice to condition footshock to an odor (conditioned stimulus (CS)). Twenty-four hours later, presentation of the CS odor during sleep resulted in an enhanced fear response when tested during(More)
A series of discoveries spanning the last decade have uncovered a new neurotransmitter - hypocretin - and its role in energy metabolism, arousal, and addiction. Also, notably, a lack of hypocretin function has been unequivocally associated with the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Here we review these findings and discuss how they will influence future treatments(More)
The transmembrane distribution of chloride anions (Cl⁻) determines the direction of the Cl⁻ flux through GABA(A) receptors; this establishes whether GABA(A) receptor-mediated responses are hyperpolarizing or depolarizing in neurons. Thus an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of inhibitory responses can be the result of an activity-induced(More)
The electroencephalogram (EEG) reflects brain electrical activity. A flat (isoelectric) EEG, which is usually recorded during very deep coma, is considered to be a turning point between a living brain and a deceased brain. Therefore the isoelectric EEG constitutes, together with evidence of irreversible structural brain damage, one of the criteria for the(More)
This paper describes the various electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns expressed by the comatose brain, starting with the sleep-like oscillations associated with light coma. Deeper coma generally displays a burst-suppression pattern characterized by alternating episodes of isoelectric (flat) EEG and bursting slow waves. The latter are the result of(More)
  • 1