Daniel Kiracofe

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One of the key goals in atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging is to enhance material property contrast with high resolution. Bimodal AFM, where two eigenmodes are simultaneously excited, confers significant advantages over conventional single-frequency tapping mode AFM due to its ability to provide contrast between regions with different material properties(More)
Dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) continues to grow in popularity among scientists in many different fields, and research on new methods and operating modes continues to expand the resolution, capabilities, and types of samples that can be studied. But many promising increases in capability are accompanied by increases in complexity. Indeed,(More)
Standard spring constant calibration methods are compared when applied to higher eigenmodes of cantilevers used in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM). Analysis shows that Sader's original method (Sader et al 1999 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70 3967-9), which relies on a priori knowledge of the eigenmode shape, is poorly suited for the calibration of higher(More)
The use of a piezoelectric element (acoustic excitation) to vibrate the base of microcantilevers is a popular method for dynamic atomic force microscopy. In air or vacuum, the base motion is so small (relative to tip motion) that it can be neglected. However, in liquid environments the base motion can be large and cannot be neglected. Yet it cannot be(More)
Structural Biology (SB) techniques are particularly successful in solving virus structures. Taking advantage of the symmetries, a heavy averaging on the data of a large number of specimens, results in an accurate determination of the structure of the sample. However, these techniques do not provide true single molecule information of viruses in(More)
Photothermal excitation is a promising means of actuating microscale structures. It is gaining increased interest for its capability to excite atomic force microscopy (AFM) microcantilevers with wide frequency bandwidth in liquid environments yielding clean resonance peaks without spurious resonances. These capabilities are particularly relevant for high(More)
Cantilevered or suspended nanowires show promise for force or mass sensing applications due to their small mass, high force sensitivity and high frequency bandwidth. To use these as quantitative sensors, their bending stiffness or mass must be calibrated experimentally, often using thermally driven vibration. However, this can be difficult because nanowires(More)