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1. Visual area V2 of macaque monkey cerebral cortex is the largest of the extrastriate visual areas, yet surprisingly little is known of its neuronal properties. We have made a quantitative analysis of V2 receptive field properties. Our set of measurements was chosen to distinguish neuronal responses reflecting parvocellular (P) or magnocellular (M) inputs(More)
We investigated the functional properties of neurons in extrastriate area V3. V3 receives inputs from both magno- and parvocellular pathways and has prominent projections to both the middle temporal area (area MT) and V4. It may therefore represent an important site for integration and transformation of visual signals. We recorded the activity of single(More)
The grid cells of the rat medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) show an increased firing frequency when the position of the animal correlates with multiple regions of the environment that are arranged in regular triangular grids. Here, we describe an artificial neural network based on a twisted torus topology, which allows for the generation of regular triangular(More)
We measured detection thresholds for a vertically oriented 1.2-cycle-per-degree sine-wave grating embedded in spatiotemporal broadband noise. Noise and signal were modulated in different directions in color space around an equal-energy white point. When signal and noise were modulated in the same direction, we observed a linear relationship between noise(More)
Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are thought to receive inhibition from other V1 neurons selective for a variety of orientations. Evidence for this inhibition is commonly found in cross-orientation suppression: responses of a V1 neuron to optimally oriented bars are suppressed by superimposed mask bars of different orientation. We show, however, that(More)
We have studied the responses of MT neurons to moving gratings, spatially modulated in luminance and chromaticity. Most MT neurons responded briskly and with high contrast sensitivity to targets whose luminance was modulated, with or without added chromatic contrast. When luminance modulation was removed and only chromatic stimulation was used, the(More)
The nocturnal, New World owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) has a rod-dominated retina containing only a single cone type, supporting only the most rudimentary color vision. However, it does have well-developed magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) retinostriate pathways and striate cortical architecture [as defined by the pattern of staining for the(More)
Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of pattern vision. After surgical creation of esotropic strabismus in the first weeks of life or after wearing -10 diopter contact lenses in one eye to simulate anisometropia during the first months of life, macaques often develop amblyopia. We studied the response properties of visual cortex neurons in six amblyopic(More)
We tested the hypothesis that synchronization of oscillatory responses between populations of visually driven neurons could be the basis for visual segmentation and perceptual grouping. We reasoned that oscillations in response induced by flickering visual targets should have an effect on visual performance in these tasks. We therefore measured the(More)
Human psychophysical studies suggest that strabismic and anisometropic amblyopes may have characteristically different patterns of visual loss. In particular, anisometropic amblyopes often show deficits on spatial localization tasks that scale with their spatial resolution losses, whereas strabismic amblyopes can show localization deficits that are large(More)