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The grid cells of the rat medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) show an increased firing frequency when the position of the animal correlates with multiple regions of the environment that are arranged in regular triangular grids. Here, we describe an artificial neural network based on a twisted torus topology, which allows for the generation of regular triangular(More)
The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement(More)
BACKGROUND Neurorehabilitation interventions to improve lower limb function and neuropathic pain have had limited success in people with chronic, incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that intense virtual reality (VR)-augmented training of observed and executed leg movements would improve limb function and neuropathic pain. (More)
We present a virtual reality (VR)-based motor neurorehabilitation system for stroke patients with upper limb paresis. It is based on two hypotheses: (1) observed actions correlated with self-generated or intended actions engage cortical motor observation, planning and execution areas ("mirror neurons"); (2) activation in damaged parts of motor cortex can be(More)
Trial-to-trial variability is a well-known issue in brain signals measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We aimed to investigate whether trial-to-trial variability does provide information about individual performance. Seventeen subjects observed a virtual reality grasping task in first-person view while either imagining (motor(More)
Rehabilitative training has shown to improve significantly motor outcomes and functional walking capacity in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). However, whether performance improvements during rehabilitation relate to brain plasticity or whether it is based on functional adaptation of movement strategies remain uncertain. This study(More)
It is known that activity in secondary motor areas during observation of human limbs performing actions is affected by the observer's viewpoint, with first-person views generally leading to stronger activation. However, previous neuroimaging studies have displayed limbs in front of the observer, providing an offset view of the limbs without a truly(More)
To enable convincing first-person interactions involving object manipulation, virtual reality systems need to represent the user's body in the virtual environment. Virtual body parts, particularly the arms and hands, must appear in the correct perceived spatial positions in a first-person view so that users can " take ownership " of them. One current method(More)
The primate's large brain-to-body weight ratio and high complexity are unusual in the animal kingdom. There is compelling evidence that it is an evolutionary adaptation that allows its owner to live a long life because of its competence in solving a wide range of problems. How primates use their brain to achieve such competence is of course of central(More)
A 20-year-old man with bilateral parasagittal occipitoparietal polymicrogyria and epilepsy, from whom normal functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram responses to visual stimuli were obtained, was found to have no visual perceptual deficits. This suggests that microgyric cortex can perform normal visual functions, despite its gross(More)
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