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Aminoacyl-tRNAs are generally formed by direct attachment of an amino acid to tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, but Gln-tRNA is an exception to this rule. Gln-tRNA(Gln) is formed by this direct pathway in the eukaryotic cytosol and in protists or fungi mitochondria but is formed by an indirect transamidation pathway in most of bacteria, archaea, and(More)
Faithful protein synthesis relies on a family of essential enzymes called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, assembled in a piecewise fashion. Analysis of the completed archaeal genomes reveals that all archaea that possess asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (AsnRS) also display a second ORF encoding an AsnRS truncated from its anticodon binding-domain (AsnRS2). We show(More)
Escherichia coli encodes YadB, a protein displaying 34% identity with the catalytic core of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase but lacking the anticodon-binding domain. We show that YadB is a tRNA modifying enzyme that evidently glutamylates the queuosine residue, a modified nucleoside at the wobble position of the tRNA(Asp) QUC anticodon. This conclusion is(More)
In most organisms, tRNA aminoacylation is ensured by 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). In eubacteria, however, synthetases can be duplicated as in Thermus thermophilus, which contains two distinct AspRSs. While AspRS-1 is specific, AspRS-2 is non-discriminating and aspartylates tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Asn). The structure at 2.3 A resolution of AspRS-2, the(More)
In many bacteria and archaea, an ancestral pathway is used where asparagine and glutamine are formed from their acidic precursors while covalently linked to tRNA(Asn) and tRNA(Gln), respectively. Stable complexes formed by the enzymes of these indirect tRNA aminoacylation pathways are found in several thermophilic organisms, and are called transamidosomes.(More)
Analysis of the completed genome sequences revealed presence in various bacteria of an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide chain presenting important similarities with the catalytic domain of glutamyl-tRNA synthetases but deprived of the C-terminal anticodon-binding domain. This paralog of glutamyl-tRNA synthetases, the YadB protein, activates(More)
Glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase from Deinococcus radiodurans possesses a C-terminal extension of 215 residues appending the anticodon-binding domain. This domain constitutes a paralog of the Yqey protein present in various organisms and part of it is present in the C-terminal end of the GatB subunit of GatCAB, a partner of the indirect pathway of Gln-tRNA(Gln)(More)
Asparagine synthetase A (AsnA) catalyzes asparagine synthesis using aspartate, ATP, and ammonia as substrates. Asparagine is formed in two steps: the β-carboxylate group of aspartate is first activated by ATP to form an aminoacyl-AMP before its amidation by a nucleophilic attack with an ammonium ion. Interestingly, this mechanism of amino acid activation(More)
The product of the Escherichia coli yadB gene is homologous to the N-terminal part of bacterial glutamyl-tRNA synthetases (GluRSs), including the Rossmann fold with the acceptor-binding domain and the stem-contact fold. This GluRS-like protein, which lacks the anticodon-binding domain, does not use tRNA(Glu) as substrate in vitro nor in vivo, but(More)
The concept of technical debt provides an excellent tool for describing technology gaps in terms any stakeholder can understand. The technical debt metaphor was pioneered by the software development community and describes technical challenges in that context very well. However, establishing a definitional framework which describes issues affecting quality(More)