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In this study we compared the wing kinematics of 27 bats representing six pteropodid species ranging more than 40 times in body mass (M(b)=0.0278-1.152 kg), to determine whether wing posture and overall wing kinematics scaled as predicted according to theory. The smallest species flew in a wind tunnel and the other five species in a flight corridor.(More)
Body motions (kinematics) of animals can be dimensionally complex, especially when flexible parts of the body interact with a surrounding fluid. In these systems, tracking motion completely can be difficult, and result in a large number of correlated measurements, with unclear contributions of each parameter to performance. Workers typically get around this(More)
We investigated the detailed kinematics and wake structure of lesser dog-faced fruit bats (Cynopterus brachyotis) flying in a wind tunnel. High speed recordings of the kinematics were conducted to obtain three-dimensional reconstructions of wing movements. Simultaneously, the flow structure in the spanwise plane perpendicular to the flow stream was(More)
Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We(More)
In the evolution of flight bats appear to have suffered a trade-off; they have become poor crawlers relative to terrestrial mammals. Capable walking does occur in a few disparate taxa, including the vampire bats, but the vast majority of bats are able only to shuffle awkwardly along the ground, and the morphological bases of differences in crawling ability(More)
Most tetrapods have retained terrestrial locomotion since it evolved in the Palaeozoic era, but bats have become so specialized for flight that they have almost lost the ability to manoeuvre on land at all. Vampire bats, which sneak up on their prey along the ground, are an important exception. Here we show that common vampire bats can also run by using a(More)
In response to pain, mice may vocalize at frequencies above the range of human hearing (greater than 20 kHz). To determine whether an ultrasonic recording system is a reliable tool for assessing acute pain, we measured audible and ultrasonic vocalization in mice subjected to either nonpainful or potentially painful procedures performed routinely in animal(More)
Bats typically roost head-under-heels but they cannot hover in this position, thus, landing on a ceiling presents a biomechanical challenge. To land, a bat must perform an acrobatic flip that brings the claws of the toes in contact with the ceiling and do so gently enough as to avoid injury to its slender hindlimbs. In the present study, we sought to(More)
The center of mass (COM) of a flying animal accelerates through space because of aerodynamic and gravitational forces. For vertebrates, changes in the position of a landmark on the body have been widely used to estimate net aerodynamic forces. The flapping of relatively massive wings, however, might induce inertial forces that cause markers on the body to(More)
Linkage of echolocation call production with contraction of flight muscles has been suggested to reduce the energetic cost of flight with echolocation, such that the overall cost is approximately equal to that of flight alone. However, the pattern of call production with limb movement in terrestrially agile bats has never been investigated. We used(More)