Daniel K. Podolsky

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Recently, substantial advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been made owing to three related lines of investigation. First, IBD has been found to be the most tractable of complex disorders for discovering susceptibility genes, and these have shown the importance of epithelial barrier function,(More)
Initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory intestinal responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may result from an exaggerated host defense reaction of the intestinal epithelium to endogenous lumenal bacterial flora. Intestinal epithelial cell lines constitutively express several functional Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which appear to be key(More)
Maintaining the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract, despite the continual presence of microbial flora and injurious agents, is essential. Epithelial continuity depends on a family of small, yet abundant, secreted proteins--the trefoil factors (TFFs). TFFs protect mucous epithelia from a range of insults and contribute to mucosal repair, although the(More)
LRRK2 was previously identified as a defective gene in Parkinson's disease, and it is also located in a risk region for Crohn's disease. In this study, we aim to determine whether LRRK2 could be involved in immune responses. We show that LRRK2 expression is enriched in human immune cells. LRRK2 is an IFN-γ target gene, and its expression increased in(More)
LPS elicits several immediate proinflammatoy responses in peripheral blood leukocytes via a recently described pathway including CD14, Toll-like receptors (TLR), serine-threonine kinases, and NF-kappaB transcription factor. However, the functional responses of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) to stimulation with LPS are unknown. Expression of mRNA and(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in regulation of intestinal epithelial integrity in response to lumenal bacteria. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitutively express Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, which contains multiple potential PKC binding sites. The aim of this study was to determine whether TLR2 may activate PKC in(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Despite the ability to participate in immune responses and the continuous presence of bacteria and bacterial products, functional responses of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) seem to be muted. Previously, tolerance to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) ligands has been described in monocytic cells. However, mechanisms in the intestine are(More)
The trefoil peptides, a recently recognized family of protease-resistant peptides, expressed in a regional specific pattern throughout the normal gastrointestinal tract. Although these peptides have been hypothesized to act as growth factors, their functional properties are largely unknown. Addition of recombinant trefoil peptides human spasmolytic(More)
Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism. In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.(More)