Daniel K Mulkey

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A long-standing theory posits that central chemoreception, the CNS mechanism for CO(2) detection and regulation of breathing, involves neurons located at the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata (VMS). Using in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological recordings, we identify VMS neurons within the rat retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) that have characteristics(More)
Central congenital hypoventilation syndrome is caused by mutations of the gene that encodes the transcription factor Phox2b. The syndrome is characterized by a severe form of sleep apnea attributed to greatly compromised central and peripheral chemoreflexes. In this study, we analyze whether Phox2b expression in the brainstem respiratory network is(More)
Central respiratory chemoreception is the mechanism by which the CNS maintains physiologically appropriate pH and PCO2 via control of breathing. A prominent hypothesis holds that neural substrates for this process are distributed widely in the respiratory network, especially because many neurons that make up this network are chemosensitive in vitro. We and(More)
The rat retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) contains neurons described as central chemoreceptors in the adult and respiratory rhythm-generating pacemakers in neonates [parafacial respiratory group (pfRG)]. Here we test the hypothesis that both RTN and pfRG neurons are intrinsically chemosensitive and tonically firing neurons whose respiratory rhythmicity is caused(More)
Serotonin activates respiration and enhances the stimulatory effect of CO2 on breathing. The present study tests whether the mechanism involves the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a group of medullary glutamatergic neurons activated by extracellular brain pH and presumed to regulate breathing. We show that the RTN is innervated by both medullary and pontine(More)
Central chemoreception is the mechanism by which CO(2)/pH sensors regulate breathing in response to tissue pH changes. There is compelling evidence that pH-sensitive neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) are important chemoreceptors. Evidence also indicates that CO(2)/H(+)-evoked adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) release in the RTN, from pH-sensitive(More)
Central chemoreception is the mechanism by which arterial blood P(CO2) is detected by the CNS to regulate breathing. Two main theories have been proposed to account for the phenomenon. The distributed chemosensitivity theory argues that pH sensitivity is a widespread attribute of brainstem neurones and that central chemoreception results from the cumulative(More)
Hyperoxia is a popular model of oxidative stress. However, hyperoxic gas mixtures are routinely used for chemical denervation of peripheral O2 receptors in in vivo studies of respiratory control. The underlying assumption whenever using hyperoxia is that there are no direct effects of molecular O2 and reactive O2 species (ROS) on brain stem function. In(More)
Central chemoreception is the mechanism by which CO(2)/pH-sensitive neurons (i.e. chemoreceptors) regulate breathing, presumably in response to changes in tissue pH. A region of the brainstem called the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is thought to be an important site of chemoreception; select neurons (i.e. chemoreceptors) in this region sense changes in(More)
We studied the CO(2)/H(+)-chemosensitive responses of individual solitary complex (SC) neurons from adult rats by simultaneously measuring the intracellular pH (pH(i)) and electrical responses to hypercapnic acidosis (HA). SC neurons were recorded using the blind whole cell patch-clamp technique and loading the soma with the pH-sensitive dye pyranine(More)