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Speed of nerve impulse conduction is greatly increased by myelin, a multi-layered membranous sheath surrounding axons. Myelinated axons are ubiquitous among the vertebrates, but relatively rare among invertebrates. Electron microscopy of calanoid copepods using rapid cryofixation techniques revealed the widespread presence of myelinated axons. Myelin(More)
1. Neurons in the central pattern generator for the "pyloric" motor rhythm of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion were investigated for the possible involvement of regenerative membrane properties in their membrane-potential oscillations and bursting output patterns. 2. Evidence was found that each class of pyloric-system neurons can possess a capability(More)
Graded synaptic transmission occurs between spiking neurons of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion. In addition to eliciting spike-evoked inhibitory potentials in postsynaptic cells, these neurons also release functionally significant amounts of transmitter below the threshold for action potentials. The spikeless postsynaptic potentials grade in amplitude(More)
A rapid and powerful escape response decreases predation risk in planktonic copepods. Calanoid copepods are sensitive to small and brief hydrodynamic disturbances: they respond with multiple nerve impulses to a vibrating sphere. Some species, such as Pleuromamma xiphias and Labidocera madurae, respond with very large spikes (1-4 mV), whereas maximum spike(More)
Two-electrode voltage clamp of intact, identified pyloric neurons of the spiny lobster stomatogastric ganglion reveals two major outward currents. A rapidly inactivating, tetraethylammonium- (TEA) insensitive, 4-aminopyridine- (4AP) sensitive, outward current resembles IA of molluscan neurons; it activates rapidly on depolarizations above rest (e.g. -45(More)
1. Results from the companion paper were incorporated into a physiologically realistic computer model of the three principal cell types (PD/AB, LP, PY) of the pyloric network in the stomatogastric ganglion. Parameters for the model were mostly calculated (sometimes estimated) from experimental data rather than fitting the model to observed output patterns.(More)
We have applied a technique involving multi-channel linear filtering to the problem of sorting and identifying singly unit neuronal activity in records containing several simultaneously active units. The technique is effective even when the waveforms of two or more nerve impulses are superimposed. We have applied it successfully to data involving up to 6(More)
1. Outward currents in identified cell types from the pyloric system of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the spiny lobster, Panulirus marginatus, were studied under two-microelectrode voltage clamp. A comparison was made between data from intact cells and somata isolated by ligation of the primary neurite of these monopolar neurons. 2. Despite the(More)
Calanus finmarchicus, the dominant mesozooplankter of the North Atlantic, is an important food source for many fishes and other planktivores. This species, which has limited diel vertical migration, depends on its fast-start escape response to evade predators. It has myelinated neuronal axons, which contribute to its rapid and powerful escape response. The(More)