Daniel K. Hartline

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Nervous systems have evolved two basic mechanisms for increasing the conduction speed of the electrical impulse. The first is through axon gigantism: using axons several times larger in diameter than the norm for other large axons, as for example in the well-known case of the squid giant axon. The second is through encasing axons in helical or(More)
1. Results from the companion paper were incorporated into a physiologically realistic computer model of the three principal cell types (PD/AB, LP, PY) of the pyloric network in the stomatogastric ganglion. Parameters for the model were mostly calculated (sometimes estimated) from experimental data rather than fitting the model to observed output patterns.(More)
E€ective escape behavior contributes to the success of copepods in planktonic communities. The kinematics of escape were studied in tethered Undinula vulgaris (Calanoida) by analyzing the timing and magnitude of their power strokes to a precisely controlled, sudden mechanical perturbation in the surrounding water. Copepods responded with rapid swims to(More)
Planktonic copepods exhibit rapid escape behavior in response to hydrodynamic disturbances. Small disturbances of brief duration were produced by a piezoelectric transducer moving a small cylinder. The escape responses of free-swimming adult males and females of the copepods Acartia tonsa and A. lilljeborgii were recorded using high-speed video and(More)
Graded synaptic transmission between spiking motoneurons of the pyloric group was studied in the stomatogastric ganglion of the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus. Intracellular microelectrodes were placed in the cell bodies of both pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Graded synaptic transmission was found between all tested cell pairs that were known to(More)
1. Acitivity patterns arising from the thirty cells of the stomatogastric ganglion of Panulirus argus are described for both a semi-intact preparation and an isolated one. 2. The thirty or so cells can be divided so far into two functional groupings: the gastric mill group, with at least ten motor elements, and the pyloric group with at least fourteen.(More)
Speed of nerve impulse conduction is greatly increased by myelin, a multi-layered membranous sheath surrounding axons. Myelinated axons are ubiquitous among the vertebrates, but relatively rare among invertebrates. Electron microscopy of calanoid copepods using rapid cryofixation techniques revealed the widespread presence of myelinated axons. Myelin(More)
Calanoid copepods constitute an important group of marine planktonic crustaceans that often dominate the metazoan biomass of the world’s oceans. In proportion to their ecological importance, little is known about their nervous systems. We have used immunohistochemical techniques in a common North Atlantic calanoid to localize re-identifiable neurons that(More)
The evolutionary origins of glia are lost in time, as soft tissues rarely leave behind fossil footprints, and any molecular footprints they might have been left we have yet to decipher. Nevertheless, because of the growing realization of the importance glia plays in the development and functioning of the nervous system, lessons we can draw about(More)