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Nervous systems have evolved two basic mechanisms for increasing the conduction speed of the electrical impulse. The first is through axon gigantism: using axons several times larger in diameter than the norm for other large axons, as for example in the well-known case of the squid giant axon. The second is through encasing axons in helical or(More)
Speed of nerve impulse conduction is greatly increased by myelin, a multi-layered membranous sheath surrounding axons. Myelinated axons are ubiquitous among the vertebrates, but relatively rare among invertebrates. Electron microscopy of calanoid copepods using rapid cryofixation techniques revealed the widespread presence of myelinated axons. Myelin(More)
1. Results from the companion paper were incorporated into a physiologically realistic computer model of the three principal cell types (PD/AB, LP, PY) of the pyloric network in the stomatogastric ganglion. Parameters for the model were mostly calculated (sometimes estimated) from experimental data rather than fitting the model to observed output patterns.(More)
We have applied a technique involving multi-channel linear filtering to the problem of sorting and identifying singly unit neuronal activity in records containing several simultaneously active units. The technique is effective even when the waveforms of two or more nerve impulses are superimposed. We have applied it successfully to data involving up to 6(More)
A rapid and powerful escape response decreases predation risk in planktonic copepods. Calanoid copepods are sensitive to small and brief hydrodynamic disturbances: they respond with multiple nerve impulses to a vibrating sphere. Some species, such as Pleuromamma xiphias and Labidocera madurae, respond with very large spikes (1-4 mV), whereas maximum spike(More)
The copepod Acartia tonsa exhibits a vigorous escape jump in response to rapid decreases in light intensity, such as those produced by the shadow of an object passing above it. In the laboratory, decreases in light intensity were produced using a fiber optic lamp and an electronic shutter to abruptly either nearly eliminate visible light or reduce light(More)
1. Neurons in the central pattern generator for the "pyloric" motor rhythm of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion were investigated for the possible involvement of regenerative membrane properties in their membrane-potential oscillations and bursting output patterns. 2. Evidence was found that each class of pyloric-system neurons can possess a capability(More)
The evolutionary origins of glia are lost in time, as soft tissues rarely leave behind fossil footprints, and any molecular footprints they might have been left we have yet to decipher. Nevertheless, because of the growing realization of the importance glia plays in the development and functioning of the nervous system, lessons we can draw about(More)