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Gatys et al. (2015) showed that optimizing pixels to match features in a convolutional network with respect reference image features is a way to render images of high visual quality. We show that unrolling this gradient-based optimization yields a recurrent computation that creates images by incrementally adding onto a visual " canvas ". We propose a(More)
Denoising autoencoders (DAE) are trained to reconstruct their clean inputs with noise injected at the input level, while variational autoencoders (VAE) are trained with noise injected in their stochastic hidden layer, with a regularizer that encourages this noise injection. In this paper, we show that injecting noise both in input and in the stochastic(More)
Regularization is essential when training large neural networks. As deep neural networks can be mathematically interpreted as universal function approximators, they are effective at memorizing sampling noise in the training data. This results in poor generalization to unseen data. Therefore, it is no surprise that a new reg-ularization technique, Dropout,(More)
We discuss necessary and sufficient conditions for an auto-encoder to define a conservative vector field, in which case it is associated with an energy function akin to the unnormalized log-probability of the data. We show that the conditions for conservativeness are more general than for encoder and decoder weights to be the same (" tied weights "), and(More)
Energy-based models are popular in machine learning due to the elegance of their formulation and their relationship to statistical physics. Among these, the Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM), and its staple training algorithm contrastive divergence (CD), have been the prototype for some recent advancements in the unsupervised training of deep neural(More)
Clinical and basic experimental approaches to pediatric acute lung injury (ALI), including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), have historically focused on acute care and management of the patient. Additional efforts have focused on the etiology of pediatric ALI and ARDS, clinically defined as diffuse, bilateral diseases of the lung that compromise(More)
—In problems where labeled data is scarce, semi-supervised learning (SSL) techniques are an attractive framework that can exploit both labeled and unlabeled data. These approaches typically rely on a smoothness assumption such that examples that are similar in input space should also be similar in label space. In many domains, such as remotely sensed(More)
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