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To investigate the molecular basis for the diversity in muscarinic cholinergic function, we have isolated the genes encoding the human M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors (mAChR) as well as two previously undiscovered mAChR subtypes, designated HM3 and HM4. The amino acid sequence of each subtype reflects a structure consisting of seven, highly conserved(More)
The complete 186,000 base-pair (bp) human factor VIII gene has been isolated and consists of 26 exons ranging in size from 69 to 3,106 bp and introns as large as 32.4 kilobases (kb). Nine kb of mRNA and protein-coding DNA has been sequenced and the mRNA termini have been mapped. The relationship between internal duplications in factor VIII and evolution of(More)
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), like many other neurotransmitter and hormone receptors, transduce agonist signals by activating G proteins to regulate ion channel activity and the generation of second messengers via the phosphoinositide (PI) and adenylyl cyclase systems. Human mAChRs are a family of at least four gene products which have(More)
Site-specific mutagenesis was used to introduce amino acid substitutions at the asparagine codons of four conserved potential N-linked glycosylation sites within the gp120 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One of these alterations resulted in the production of noninfectious virus particles. The amino acid substitution did not interfere(More)
L-selectin, a cell adhesion molecule expressed by leukocytes, mediates the attachment of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules (HEV) of peripheral lymph nodes and mediates the earliest interactions between leukocytes and activated vascular endothelium. Mice possessing a mutant L-selectin gene that results in the complete loss of cell surface receptor(More)
Although combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a considerable improvement in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the emergence of resistant virus is a significant obstacle to the effective management of HIV infection and AIDS. We have developed a novel phenotypic drug susceptibility assay that may be(More)
DNA sequence analysis of the activated oncogene from the T24 human bladder carcinoma line and two alleles of its normal cellular progenitor (c-Ha-ras-1) indicates that the genes encompass at least four exons, and that only a single point mutation residing within the first exon distinguishes the coding region of both alleles of the normal gene from their(More)
To investigate whether a particular receptor subtype can be coupled to multiple effector systems, recombinant M2 muscarinic receptors were expressed in cells lacking endogenous receptor. The muscarinic agonist carbachol both inhibited adenylyl cyclase and stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis was(More)
Analysis of the organization and nucleotide sequence of two human loci related to the transforming gene of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus establishes one as a functional gene and the other as a processed pseudogene. The two final coding exons of the functional gene seem to have arisen by duplication. Differentially spliced mRNAs incorporating one or other of(More)
Human Ha-ras1 cDNAs encoding normal and activated p21 polypeptides have been efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli and the biochemical activities associated with each polypeptide compared. In addition to the guanine nucleotide binding activity, normal p21 displays a GTPase activity which is selectively impaired by a mutation which activates its(More)