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Models of molecular evolution that incorporate the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous polymorphism (dN/dS ratio) as a parameter can be used to identify sites that are under diversifying selection or functional constraint in a sample of gene sequences. However, when there has been recombination in the evolutionary history of the sequences, reconstructing a(More)
PURPOSE To prospectively compare accuracy of dynamic contrast material-enhanced thin-section multi-detector row helical computed tomography (CT), high-spatial-resolution three-dimensional (3D) dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MR imaging with optimized gradient-echo (GRE) sequence(More)
The Streptomyces venezuelae pikD gene from the pikromycin biosynthetic cluster was analyzed, and its deduced product (PikD) was found to have amino acid sequence homology with a small family of bacterial regulatory proteins. Database comparisons revealed two hypothetical domains, including an N-terminal triphosphate-binding domain and a C-terminal(More)
Patterns of genetic diversity within populations of human pathogens, shaped by the ecology of host-microbe interactions, contain important information about the epidemiological history of infectious disease. Exploiting this information, however, requires a systematic approach that distinguishes the genetic signal generated by epidemiological processes from(More)
Responsible for the majority of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world, Campylobacter jejuni is a pervasive pathogen of humans and animals, but its evolution is obscure. In this paper, we exploit contemporary genetic diversity and empirical evidence to piece together the evolutionary history of C. jejuni and quantify its evolutionary potential.(More)
Anaesthetists' ability to identify correctly a marked lumbar interspace was assessed in 100 patients undergoing spinal magnetic resonance imaging scans. Using ink, one anaesthetist marked an interspace on the lower spine and attempted to identify its level with the patient in the sitting position. A second anaesthetist attempted to identify the level with(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of intensive lipid lowering with high-dose atorvastatin on the incidence of major cardiovascular events compared with low-dose atorvastatin in patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes, with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD). PATIENTS AND METHODS Following 8 weeks' open-label therapy with(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis incidence in the UK has risen in the past decade. Disease control depends on epidemiological data, which can be difficult to obtain. Whole-genome sequencing can detect microevolution within Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. We aimed to estimate the genetic diversity of related M tuberculosis strains in the UK Midlands and to(More)
The aims of this pilot study were to determine whether the weight of a backpack, its position on the spine or time carried affected adolescents cervical and shoulder posture. Standing posture measured from the sagittal and frontal planes of 13 students was recorded photographically under several load carrying conditions. Cervical and shoulder position(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of present study was to determine which brain regions are involved in the conscious perception of sound motion in humans. METHODS Six kinds of sound stimuli were studied. Two static sound stimuli with durations of 100 or 1000 ms remained at a fixed position during the stimulation period. Four moving sound stimuli with duration of 100 or(More)