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ATP synthase membrane rotors consist of a ring of c-subunits whose stoichiometry is constant for a given species but variable across different ones. We investigated the importance of c/c-subunit contacts by site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved stretch of glycines (GxGxGxGxG) in a bacterial c(11) ring. Structural and biochemical studies show a direct,(More)
Gap junction channels mediate communication between adjacent cells. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have imaged conformational changes of the cytoplasmic and extracellular surfaces of native connexin 26 gap junction plaques. The cytoplasmic domains of the gap junction surface, imaged at submolecular resolution, form a hexameric pore protruding from(More)
Bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), also known as manic depressive illness, is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression. It has a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1% in all human populations. In order to identify chromosomal regions containing genes that play a role in determining susceptibility to this psychiatric(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) participate in virtually all physiological processes. They constitute the largest and most structurally conserved family of signaling molecules. Several class C GPCRs have been shown to exist as dimers in their active form and growing evidence indicates that many, if not all, class A receptors also form dimers and/or(More)
Polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 affect the efficacy and safety of tricyclics, with some drugs being affected by CYP2D6 only, and others by both polymorphic enzymes. Amitriptyline, clomipramine, doxepin, imipramine, and trimipramine are demethylated by CYP2C19 to pharmacologically active metabolites. These drugs and their metabolites, along with(More)
Brain tumors pose a particular challenge to molecular oncology. Many different tumor entities develop in the nervous system and some of them appear to follow distinct pathogenic routes. Molecular genetic alterations have increasingly been reported in nervous system neoplasms. However, a considerable number of affected genes remain to be identified. We(More)
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows the critical forces that unfold single proteins and rupture individual receptor-ligand bonds to be measured. To derive the shape of the energy landscape, the dynamic strength of the system is probed at different force loading rates. This is usually achieved by varying the pulling speed between a few nm/s and a few(More)
BACKGROUND The deprived physical environments present in slums are well-known to have adverse health effects on their residents. However, little is known about the health effects of the social environments in slums. Moreover, neighbourhood quantitative spatial analyses of the mental health status of slum residents are still rare. The aim of this paper is to(More)
Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ∼273 800 km 2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone(More)
Execution of motor behaviors relies on circuitries effectively integrating immediate sensory feedback to efferent pathways controlling muscle activity. It remains unclear how, during neuromuscular circuit assembly, sensory and motor projections become incorporated into tightly coordinated, yet functionally separate pathways. We report that, within axial(More)