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The in vitro self-assembly of multicellular spheroids generates highly organized structures in which the three-dimensional structure and differentiated function frequently mimic that of in vivo tissues. This has led to their use in such diverse applications as tissue regeneration and drug therapy. Using Smoluchowski-like rate equations, herein we present a(More)
Molecular simulations and an energy landscape analysis are used to examine the stretching of a model protein. A mapping of the energy landscape shows that stretching the protein causes energy minima and energy barriers to flatten out and disappear, and new energy minima to be created. The implications of these landscape distortions depend on the timescale(More)
Triboelectric charging occurs in granular insulating systems even when all particles are composed of identical material. A simple model is used here to address triboelectric charging in such systems. The basis of the model is the existence of electrons trapped in high-energy states, which can be released during collisions with another particle and(More)
Rotating-wall vessels are beneficial to tissue engineering in that the reconstituted tissue formed in these low-shear bioreactors undergoes extensive three-dimensional growth and differentiation. In the present study, bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells were grown in a high-aspect rotating-wall vessel (HARV) attached to collagen-coated Cytodex-3 beads as(More)
Insulating particles can become highly electrified during powder handling, volcanic eruptions, and the wind-blown transport of dust, sand, and snow. Measurements in these granular systems have found that smaller particles generally charge negatively, while larger particles charge positively. These observations are puzzling since particles in these systems(More)
Natural porous materials such as bone, wood and pith evolved to maximize modulus for a given density. For these three-dimensional cellular solids, modulus scales quadratically with relative density. But can nanostructuring improve on Nature's designs? Here, we report modulus-density scaling relationships for cubic (C), hexagonal (H) and worm-like disordered(More)
An inherent structure analysis of viscosity is developed based on results of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The viscosity is separated into a "structural" contribution associated with the energy minima that the system visits, and a "vibrational" contribution associated with displacements within the energy minima. The structural contribution(More)
Molecular simulations are carried out on the Immunoglobulin 27 domain of the titin protein. The energy landscape is mapped out using an implicit solvent model, and molecular dynamics simulations are run with the solvent explicitly modeled. Stretching a protein is shown to produce a dynamic energy landscape in which the energy minima move in configuration(More)
Experiments are carried out to examine triboelectric charging in granular systems composed of particles that are chemically identical but differ in size. A methodology is developed so that only particle-particle interactions (but not particle-wall interactions) contribute to the charging. Since all particles are chemically identical, there is no apparent(More)
Triboelectric charging occurs in granular systems composed of chemically identical particles even though there is no apparent driving force for charge transfer. We show that such charging can result from nonequilibrium dynamics in which collision-induced electron transfer generates electron accumulation on a particle-size-dependent subset of the system.(More)