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Fungi, like all free-living organisms, are in competition for limiting nutrients. In accumulating iron, fungi are faced also with a trace metal whose aqueous and redox chemistry make it both relatively bio-unavailable and strongly cytotoxic. Successful adaptation to this environmental context has provided fungi with an iron uptake strategy that has three(More)
The level of available iron in the mammalian host is extremely low, and pathogenic microbes must compete with host proteins such as transferrin for iron. Iron regulation of gene expression, including genes encoding iron uptake functions and virulence factors, is critical for the pathogenesis of the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study, we(More)
The related transcription factors ACE1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and AMT1 of Candida glabrata are involved in copper metabolism by activating the transcription of copper metallothionein genes. ACE1 and AMT1 are 'copper-fist' transcription factors which possess a conserved cysteine-rich copper binding domain required for DNA binding. Here we report the(More)
The trace element copper (Cu) is essential for cell growth. In this report we describe the identification of a new component of the high-affinity Cu transport machinery in yeast, encoded by the CTR3 gene. Ctr3p is a small intracellular cysteine-rich integral membrane protein that restores high-affinity Cu uptake, Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity,(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, loss of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Sod1) results in several air-dependent mutant phenotypes, including methionine auxotrophy and oxygen sensitivity. Here we report that these two sod1Delta phenotypes were specifically suppressed by elevated expression of the TKL1 gene, encoding transketolase of the pentose phosphate(More)
Fet3p is a multicopper oxidase that contains four Cu ions: one type 1, one type 2, and a coupled binuclear type 3 site. The type 2 and type 3 centers form a trinuclear cluster that is the active site for O(2) reduction to H(2)O. When the type 1 Cu is depleted (C484S mutation), the reaction of the reduced trinuclear cluster with O(2) generates a peroxide(More)
Three Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD-1)-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants do not grow in 100% O2 in rich medium and require Met and Lys when grown in air (Bilinski, T., Krawiec, Z., Liczmanski, A., and Litwinska, J. (1985) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 130, 533-539). We show herein that medium manganese (II) accumulated by the mutants rescues(More)
The multicopper oxidase Fet3p couples four 1e(-) oxidations of substrate to the 4e(-) reduction of O2 to H2O. Fet3p uses four Cu atoms to accomplish this reaction: the type 1, type 2, and coupled binuclear type 3 sites. The type 2 and type 3 sites together form a trinuclear Cu cluster (TNC) which is the site of O2 reduction. This study focuses on mutants of(More)
Fre1p is a metalloreductase in the yeast plasma membrane that is essential to uptake of environmental Cu2+ and Fe3+. Fet3p is a multicopper oxidase in this membrane essential for high affinity iron uptake. In the uptake of Fe3+, Fre1p produces Fe2+ that is a substrate for Fet3p; the Fe3+ produced by Fet3p is a ligand for the iron permease, Ftr1p. Deletion(More)
A saturable and temperature-dependent copper uptake pathway has been identified in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The uptake system has a high affinity for copper ions (Km approximately 0.2 microM) and is more active in cells that are adapted to copper deficiency than to cells grown in a medium containing physiological (submicromolar to micromolar) copper ion(More)