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Fungi, like all free-living organisms, are in competition for limiting nutrients. In accumulating iron, fungi are faced also with a trace metal whose aqueous and redox chemistry make it both relatively bio-unavailable and strongly cytotoxic. Successful adaptation to this environmental context has provided fungi with an iron uptake strategy that has three(More)
The related transcription factors ACE1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and AMT1 of Candida glabrata are involved in copper metabolism by activating the transcription of copper metallothionein genes. ACE1 and AMT1 are 'copper-fist' transcription factors which possess a conserved cysteine-rich copper binding domain required for DNA binding. Here we report the(More)
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a plasma membrane reductase activity associated with the gene product of the FRE1 locus. This reductase is required for Fe(III) uptake by this yeast; transcription from FRE1 is repressed by iron (Dancis, A., Klausner, R. D., Hinnebusch, A. G., and Barriocanal, J. G. (1990) Mol. Cell. Biol. 10, 2294-2301). We show(More)
The level of available iron in the mammalian host is extremely low, and pathogenic microbes must compete with host proteins such as transferrin for iron. Iron regulation of gene expression, including genes encoding iron uptake functions and virulence factors, is critical for the pathogenesis of the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study, we(More)
Fet3p is a multicopper-containing glycoprotein localized to the yeast plasma membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). This ferrous iron oxidation is coupled to the reduction of O(2) to H(2)O and is termed the ferroxidase reaction. Fet3p-produced Fe(III) is transferred to the permease Ftr1p for import into the cytosol. The(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, loss of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Sod1) results in several air-dependent mutant phenotypes, including methionine auxotrophy and oxygen sensitivity. Here we report that these two sod1Delta phenotypes were specifically suppressed by elevated expression of the TKL1 gene, encoding transketolase of the pentose phosphate(More)
The trace element copper (Cu) is essential for cell growth. In this report we describe the identification of a new component of the high-affinity Cu transport machinery in yeast, encoded by the CTR3 gene. Ctr3p is a small intracellular cysteine-rich integral membrane protein that restores high-affinity Cu uptake, Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity,(More)
Aerobic organisms are faced with a dilemma. Environmental iron is found primarily in the relatively inert Fe(III) form, whereas the more metabolically active ferrous form is a strong pro-oxidant. This conundrum is solved by the redox cycling of iron between Fe(III) and Fe(II) at every step in the iron metabolic pathway. As a transition metal ion, iron can(More)
We have used an in vitro model system to probe the iron transport pathway across the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This model consists of human BMVEC (hBMVEC) and C6 glioma cells (as an astrocytic cell line) grown in a transwell, a cell culture system commonly used to quantify metabolite flux across a(More)
The mechanism(s) of iron flux across the brain microvasculature endothelial cells (BMVEC) of the blood-brain barrier remains unknown. Although both hephaestin (Hp) and the ferrous iron permease ferroportin (Fpn) have been identified in BMVEC, their roles in iron efflux have not been examined. Using a human BMVEC line (hBMVEC), we have demonstrated that(More)