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The level of available iron in the mammalian host is extremely low, and pathogenic microbes must compete with host proteins such as transferrin for iron. Iron regulation of gene expression, including genes encoding iron uptake functions and virulence factors, is critical for the pathogenesis of the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study, we(More)
We have used an in vitro model system to probe the iron transport pathway across the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This model consists of human BMVEC (hBMVEC) and C6 glioma cells (as an astrocytic cell line) grown in a transwell, a cell culture system commonly used to quantify metabolite flux across a(More)
Iron transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) involves the cooperation of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) and their neighboring astrocytes. Astrocytes secrete a soluble form of ceruloplasmin (sCp) which, in turn, acts to export iron from ferroportin (Fpn) on the basolateral surface of BMVEC. Although regulation of astrocyte sCp gene(More)
There are two barriers for iron entry into the brain: (1) the brain–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and (2) the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Here, we review the literature on developmental iron accumulation by the brain, focusing on the transport of iron through the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) of the BBB. We review the iron trafficking(More)
The molecular mechanisms of iron trafficking in neurons have not been elucidated. In this study, we characterized the expression and localization of ferrous iron transporters Zip8, Zip14 and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferrireductases Steap2 and stromal cell-derived receptor 2 in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Steap2 and Zip8 partially(More)
The mechanism(s) by which iron in blood is transported across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) remains controversial. Here we have examined the first step of this trans-cellular pathway, namely the mechanism(s) of iron uptake into human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMVEC). We show that hBMVEC actively reduce non-transferrin bound FeIII (NTBI) and(More)
Iron is an essential micronutrient for almost all organisms, including fungi. Usually, fungi can uptake iron through receptor-mediated internalization of a siderophore or heme, and/or reductive iron assimilation (RIA). Traditionally, the RIA pathway consists of ferric reductases (Fres), ferroxidase (Fet3) and a high-affinity iron permease (Ftr1).(More)
The cell association of copper in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can involve both binding to the cell wall and the accumulation of copper within the cell. The former process requires the concurrent generation of H2S by the cell via the reduction of sulphate. The contributions of each of these processes to the uptake of 64Cu by wild type and(More)
Acquisition and distribution of metal ions support a number of biological processes. Here we show that respiratory growth of and iron acquisition by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae relies on potassium (K(+)) compartmentalization to the trans-Golgi network via Kha1p, a K(+)/H(+) exchanger. K(+) in the trans-Golgi network facilitates binding of copper to(More)