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Morphological changes are thought to contribute to the expression of long-term synaptic plasticity, a cellular basis for learning and memory. The mechanisms mediating the initiation and maintenance of the morphological changes are poorly understood. We repeatedly imaged the axonal arbors of mechanosensory neurons of Aplysia as they formed new synaptic(More)
The regenerative growth in culture of the axons of two giant identified neurons from the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was observed using video-enhanced contrast-differential interference contrast microscopy. This technique allowed the visualization in living cells of the membranous organelles of the growth cone. Elongation of axonal(More)
Recent evidence has implicated dynein and its regulatory factors dynactin and LIS1 in neuronal and non-neuronal cell migration. In the current study we sought to test whether effects on neuronal cell motility might reflect, in part, a role for these proteins in the growth cone. In chick sensory neurons subjected to acute laminin treatment dynein, dynactin,(More)
The growth of axons and dendrites during development and regeneration is regulated by cues in the environment. Many of these cues regulate the actin cytoskeleton of the protrusive structures (like filopodia) of the growth cone that are essential for detecting and responding to cues. Nerve growth factor, which promotes the formation of protrusive structures,(More)
BACKGROUND Glutamate has been proposed as a transmitter in the peripheral taste system in addition to its well-documented role as an umami taste stimulus. Evidence for a role as a transmitter includes the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptors in nerve fibers and taste cells, as well as the expression of the glutamate transporter GLAST in Type I taste(More)
Formation of terminal synapses at sites such as the neuromuscular junction involves transformation of the motile growth cone into the nonmotile synaptic terminal. However, transformation does not need to be the mechanism when a neurite forms multiple widely spaced synaptic varicosities along a target in an en passant configuration. Synaptic varicosities(More)
Several types of evidence suggest that protein-tyrosine phosphorylation is important during the growth of neuronal processes, but few specific roles, or subcellular localizations suggestive of such roles, have been defined. We report here a localization of tyrosine-phosphorylated protein at the tips of growth cone filopodia. Immunocytochemistry using a mAb(More)
Axons growing in the developing nervous system are guided by cues in the environment which act at the growth cone. So far, the initial cytoskeletal target of these cues has been found to be the network of actin filaments in the peripheral region of the growth cone. Laminins are constituents of the extracellular matrix which promote axonal growth. They exert(More)
The p38 stress-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in regulation of phosphorylation of Hsp25, which in turn regulates actin filament dynamic in non-neuronal cells. We report that p38, Hsp25 and Akt signaling pathways were specifically activated in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve axotomy. The activation of the p38 kinase was required for(More)