Daniel J Drucker

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Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut-derived incretin hormone that stimulates insulin and suppresses glucagon secretion, inhibits gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and food intake. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing incretin action include degradation-resistant GLP-1 receptor agonists (incretin mimetics), and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4(More)
This review focuses on the mechanisms regulating the synthesis, secretion, biological actions, and therapeutic relevance of the incretin peptides glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The published literature was reviewed, with emphasis on recent advances in our understanding of the biology of GIP and GLP-1.(More)
BACKGROUND The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) is believed to mediate glucoregulatory and cardiovascular effects of the incretin hormone GLP-1(7-36) (GLP-1), which is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) to GLP-1(9-36), a truncated metabolite generally thought to be inactive. Novel drugs for the treatment of diabetes include(More)
Obesity and its associated metabolic syndromes represent a growing global challenge, yet mechanistic understanding of this pathology and current therapeutics are unsatisfactory. We discovered that CD4(+) T lymphocytes, resident in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), control insulin resistance in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Analyses of human tissue(More)
Gut peptides, exemplified by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted in a nutrient-dependent manner and stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Both GIP and GLP-1 also promote beta cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, leading to expansion of beta cell mass. GLP-1, but not GIP, controls(More)
BACKGROUND Exenatide is an incretin mimetic that shares glucoregulatory properties with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and improves glycaemic control, with progressive bodyweight reductions, when administered twice a day in patients with type 2 diabetes. We compared the efficacy of a once-weekly formulation of exenatide to that of a twice daily dose. (More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut peptide that, together with its receptor, GLP-1R, is expressed in the brain. Here we show that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) GLP-1 and [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9) (HSEGTFTSD; homologous to a conserved domain in the glucagon/GLP-1 family) enhance associative and spatial learning through GLP-1R. [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9), but(More)
Incretin peptides, principally GLP-1 and GIP, regulate islet hormone secretion, glucose concentrations, lipid metabolism, gut motility, appetite and body weight, and immune function, providing a scientific basis for utilizing incretin-based therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Activation of GLP-1 and GIP receptors also leads to nonglycemic effects(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Gut-derived peptides including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), and GLP-2 exert overlapping actions on energy homeostasis through defined G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The proglucagon-derived peptide (PGDP) oxyntomodulin (OXM) is cosecreted with GLP-1 and inhibits feeding in rodents(More)
Exercise, obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with elevated plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that induces insulin secretion. Here we show that administration of IL-6 or elevated IL-6 concentrations in response to exercise stimulate GLP-1 secretion from intestinal L cells and pancreatic alpha(More)