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Neural responses to sensory stimuli are not independent. Pairwise correlation can reduce coding efficiency, occur independent of stimulus representation, or serve as an additional channel of information, depending on the timescale of correlation and the method of decoding. Any role for correlation depends on its magnitude and structure. In sensory areas(More)
Understanding the role of corticothalamic projections in shaping visual response properties in the thalamus has been a longstanding challenge in visual neuroscience. Here, we take advantage of the cell-type specificity of a transgenic mouse line, the GN220-Ntsr1 Cre line, to manipulate selectively the activity of a layer 6 (L6) corticogeniculate population(More)
A large array of neuroscientific techniques, including in vivo electrophysiology, two-photon imaging, optogenetics, lesions, and microdialysis, require access to the brain through the skull. Ideally, the necessary craniotomies could be performed in a repeatable and automated fashion, without damaging the underlying brain tissue. Here we report that when(More)
Despite the widespread use of current-source density (CSD) analysis of extracellular potential recordings in the brain, the physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of the signal are still debated. While the extracellular potential is thought to be exclusively generated by the transmembrane currents, recent studies suggest that extracellular(More)
The mouse visual system is an emerging model for the study of cortical and thalamic circuit function. To maximize the usefulness of this model system, it is important to analyze the similarities and differences between the organization of all levels of the murid visual system with other, better studied systems (e.g., non-human primates and the domestic(More)
We report on the development of high-density neural probes for distributed neuronal recording and stimulation. Our hybrid silicon-parylene probes provide high spatial resolution and incorporate a monolithically integrated flexible cable to address the challenge of stable recordings in chronic neural implants. We address a long-standing but often overlooked(More)
Gamma oscillations (20-50 Hz) are a robust component of brain activity associated with information processing, but are also part of the background spontaneous activity during various brain states including sleep and anesthesia. Our goal was to examine the changes in gamma oscillations that result from pharmacological and genetic manipulations of(More)
In both dichromats and trichromats, cone opsin signals are maintained independently in cones and combined at the bipolar and retinal ganglion cell level, creating parallel color opponent pathways to the central visual system. Like other dichromats, the mouse retina expresses a short-wavelength (S) and a medium-wavelength (M) opsin, with the S-opsin shifted(More)
Optogenetic techniques are used widely to perturb and interrogate neural circuits in behaving animals, but illumination can have additional effects, such as the activation of endogenous opsins in the retina. We found that illumination, delivered deep into the brain via an optical fiber, evoked a behavioral artifact in mice performing a visually guided(More)
Vision has long been the model for understanding cortical function. Great progress has been made in understanding the transformations that occur within some primary visual cortex (V1) layers, like the emergence of orientation selectivity in layer 4. Less is known about other V1 circuit elements, like the shaping of V1 input via corticothalamic projections,(More)