Daniel J Byrd

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The vast majority of people living with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have pain syndrome, which has a significant impact on their quality of life. The underlying causes of HIV-1-associated pain are not likely attributable to direct viral infection of the nervous system due to the lack of evidence of neuronal infection by HIV-1. However, HIV-1(More)
Latently HIV-1-infected cells are recognized as the last barrier toward viral eradication and cure. To purge these cells, we combined a provirus stimulant with a blocker of human CD59, a key member of the regulators of complement activation, to trigger Ab-dependent complement-mediated lysis. Provirus stimulants including prostratin and histone deacetylase(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pandemic has claimed over 20 million lives, with 38.6 million people worldwide currently infected (2009 AIDS Epidemic Update by UNAIDS/WHO, www.unaids.org), and will continue to contribute to human morbidity and mortality. The number of people living with HIV-1 continues to rise worldwide because of high rates(More)
Poxviruses, including vaccinia virus (VV) and canarypox virus (ALVAC), do not indiscriminately infect all cell types of the primary human leukocytes (PHLs) that they encounter but instead demonstrate an extremely strong bias toward infection of monocytes and monocyte lineage cells. We studied the specific molecular events that determine the VV tropism for(More)
Many pathogenic enveloped viruses, including HIV-1, escape complement-mediated virolysis by incorporating host cell regulators of complement activation into their own viral envelope. The presence of complement regulators including CD59 on the external surface of the viral envelope confers resistance to complement-mediated virolysis, which may explain why(More)
UNLABELLED Several enveloped viruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), Ebola virus, vaccinia virus, and influenza virus have been found to incorporate host regulators of complement activation (RCA) into their viral envelopes and, as a result, escape antibody-dependent(More)
UNLABELLED The pathogenesis of accelerated liver damage in subjects coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that ongoing chronic liver inflammation is responsible for the liver injury in HCV-infected patients. We aimed to determine whether HIV-1 coinfection(More)
UNLABELLED Human monocytic and professional antigen-presenting cells have been reported only to exhibit abortive infections with vaccinia virus (VACV). We found that monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), including granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-polarized M1 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-polarized M2, but not(More)
UNLABELLED Both HIV-1 virions and infected cells use their surface regulators of complement activation (RCA) to resist antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis (ADCML). Blockage of the biological function of RCA members, particularly CD59 (a key RCA member that controls formation of the membrane attack complex at the terminal stage of the complement(More)
Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) can trigger an intense local inflammatory response at the site of infection, yet there is little specific immune response or development of immune memory. Gonococcal surface epitopes are known to undergo antigenic variation; however, this is unlikely to explain the weak immune response to infection since(More)