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Exogenously administered cannabinoids are neuroprotective in several different cellular and animal models. In the current study, two cannabinoid CB1 receptor ligands (WIN 55,212-2, CP 55,940) markedly reduced hippocampal cell death, in a time-dependent manner, in cultured neurons subjected to high levels of NMDA (15 microM). WIN 55,212-2 was also shown to(More)
In this study we used in situ hybridisation and double-labelling immunohistochemistry to characterise cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) expression in rat lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.Approximately 25% of DRG neurons expressed CB(1) mRNA and displayed immunoreactivity for CB(1). Sixty-nine percent to 82% of CB(1)-expressing cells were also(More)
The analgesic properties of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 were investigated in a model of neuropathic pain. In male Wistar rats, bilateral hind limb withdrawal thresholds to cold, mechanical and noxious thermal stimuli were measured. Following this, unilateral L5 spinal nerve ligation was performed. Seven days later, sensory thresholds were(More)
Activation of cannabinoid receptors causes inhibition of spasticity, in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, and of persistent pain, in the rat formalin test. The endocannabinoid anandamide inhibits spasticity and persistent pain. It not only binds to cannabinoid receptors but is also a full agonist at vanilloid receptors of type 1 (VR1). We found here that(More)
BACKGROUND In spite of the significant mortality associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection, the mechanisms underlying severe disease remain poorly understood. We have previously shown evidence of endothelial activation in Ghanaian children with malaria, indicated by elevated plasma levels of both von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its propeptide. In the(More)
The analysis of gene changes associated with exposure to cannabinoids is critical due to the multiple possible signaling pathways potentially affected by cannabinoid receptor activation. A comparison of altered gene profiles under two different conditions, one in vivo (chronic exposure to delta-9-THC) and the other in vitro (neuroprotection mediated by(More)
Bone tissue mechanical properties are deemed a key component of bone strength, but their assessment requires invasive procedures. Here we validate a new instrument, a reference point indentation (RPI) instrument, for measuring these tissue properties in vivo. The RPI instrument performs bone microindentation testing (BMT) by inserting a probe assembly(More)
Repeat national household surveys suggest highly variable malaria transmission and increasing coverage of high-impact malaria interventions throughout Zambia. Many areas of very low malaria transmission, especially across southern and central regions, are driving efforts towards sub-national elimination. Reactive case detection (RCD) is conducted in(More)
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major human health scourge and a key cause of mortality. Its pathogenicity partly results from the phenomenon of "cytoadherence" mediated by the PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) family. Extracellular domains of PfEMP1s are variable and bind various host endothelial receptors, whereas their(More)
Accurate and timely malaria data are crucial to monitor the progress towards and attainment of elimination. Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia, has reported very low malaria prevalence in Malaria Indicator Surveys. Issues of low malaria testing rates, high numbers of unconfirmed malaria cases and over consumption of anti-malarials were common at clinics(More)