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The mechanisms that regulate variable (V) gene selection during the development of the mouse IgH repertoire are not fully understood, due in part to the absence of the complete locus sequence. To better understand these processes, we have assembled the entire 2.5-Mb mouse IgH (Igh) V region sequence of the C57BL/6 strain from public sequences and present(More)
Chromosomal translocation requires formation of paired double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) on heterologous chromosomes. One of the most well characterized oncogenic translocations juxtaposes c-myc and the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus (IgH) and is found in Burkitt's lymphomas in humans and plasmacytomas in mice. DNA breaks in IgH leading to c-myc/IgH(More)
Antigen receptor genes undergo variable, diversity and joining (V(D)J) recombination, which requires ordered large-scale chromatin remodeling. Here we show that antisense transcription, both genic and intergenic, occurs extensively in the V region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates antisense(More)
The assembly of Ag receptor genes by V(D)J recombination is regulated by transcriptional promoters and enhancers which control chromatin accessibility at Ig and TCR gene segments to the RAG-1/RAG-2 recombinase complex. Paradoxically, germline deletions of the IgH enhancer (Emu) only modestly reduce D(H)-->J(H) rearrangements when assessed in peripheral B(More)
B cell development is controlled by a series of checkpoints that ensure that the immunoglobulin (Ig)-encoding genes produce a functional B cell receptor (BCR) and antibodies. As part of this process, recombination-activating gene (Rag) proteins regulate the in-frame assembly of the Ig-encoding genes. The BCR consists of Ig proteins in complex with the(More)
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by deletions within the polymorphic DNA tandem array D4Z4. Each D4Z4 repeat unit has an open reading frame (ORF), termed "DUX4," containing two homeobox sequences. Because there has been no evidence of a transcript from the array, these deletions are thought to cause FSHD by a position effect on other(More)
V(D)J recombination is believed to be regulated by alterations in chromatin accessibility to the recombinase machinery, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. We previously proposed that antisense intergenic transcription, activated throughout the mouse Igh VH region in pro-B cells, remodels chromatin for VH-to-DJH recombination. Using RNA(More)
The subtelomeric region of human chromosome 4q contains the locus for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The FSHD mutation is a deletion within an array of 3.3-kb tandem repeats (D4Z4). The disease mechanism is unknown but is postulated to involve position effect. A closely related 3.3-kb array on chromosome 10qter, in contrast, is not(More)
DNA methylation changes at a discrete set of sites in the human genome are predictive of chronological and biological age. However, it is not known whether these changes are causative or a consequence of an underlying ageing process. It has also not been shown whether this epigenetic clock is unique to humans or conserved in the more experimentally(More)
Transcription in mammalian nuclei is highly compartmentalized in RNA polymerase II-enriched nuclear foci known as transcription factories. Genes in cis and trans can share the same factory, suggesting that genes migrate to preassembled transcription sites. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization to investigate the dynamics of gene association with(More)