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Batten disease, a degenerative neurological disorder with juvenile onset, is the most common form of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Mutations in the CLN3 gene cause Batten disease. To facilitate studies of Batten disease pathogenesis and treatment, a murine model was created by targeted disruption of the Cln3 gene. Mice homozygous for the disrupted(More)
In songbirds, singing behavior is controlled by a discrete network of interconnected brain nuclei known collectively as the song control system. Both the development of this system and the expression of singing behavior in adulthood are strongly influenced by sex steroid hormones. Although both androgenic and estrogenic steroids have effects, androgen(More)
Adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (AT-EAE), a disease resembling multiple sclerosis, is induced in rats by myelin basic protein (MBP)-activated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. By patch-clamp analysis, encephalitogenic rat T cells stimulated repeatedly in vitro expressed a unique channel phenotype ("chronically activated") with large numbers(More)
Most studies of seasonal changes in the avian song control system have used Nissl stains to characterize the nuclei. More recent work has indicated that changes in nucleus volume evident in Nissl-stained tissue are not always apparent when investigated with other histochemical criteria. In this experiment, we used two different markers (Nissl stain and(More)
Kaliotoxin (KTX), a blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv), is highly selective for Kv1.1 and Kv1.3. First, Kv1.3 is expressed by T lymphocytes. Blockers of Kv1.3 inhibit T lymphocyte activation. Second, Kv1.1 is found in paranodal regions of axons in the central nervous system. Kv blockers improve the impaired neuronal conduction of demyelinated(More)
The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is an X-linked human genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, congenital cataracts, and renal tubular dysfunction. The Lowe syndrome gene, OCRL1, encodes a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase in the Golgi complex. The pathogenesis of Lowe syndrome due to deficiency of a(More)
Songbirds possess a specialized network of brain nuclei mediating song learning and production, the song system. In many species, the nuclei in this circuit are larger in volume in males housed on long photoperiods than in males housed on short photoperiods. Exposure to long days initially leads to increases in circulating levels of testosterone (T) and it(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate is a phospholipid signaling molecule involved in many cellular functions including growth factor receptor signaling, cytoskeletal organization, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and protein trafficking. Phosphorylation at the 3 position of the inositol ring is catalyzed by many different 3-kinases (classified as types IA, IB,(More)
Astrocytes are a major cellular component of the brain that are capable of intense proliferation and metabolic activity during diverse inflammatory brain diseases (such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's dementia, tumor, HIV encephalitis, or prion disease). In this biological process, called reactive gliosis, astrocyte apoptosis is frequently observed and(More)
Pituitary FSH regulates ovarian and testicular function. Activins stimulate FSHβ subunit (Fshb) gene transcription in gonadotrope cells, the rate-limiting step in mature FSH synthesis. Activin A-induced murine Fshb gene transcription in immortalized gonadotropes is dependent on homolog of Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) proteins as well as(More)