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Many aspects of CSF dynamics are poorly understood due to the difficulties involved in quantification and visualization. In particular, there is debate surrounding the route of CSF drainage. Our aim was to quantify CSF flow, volume, and drainage route dynamics in vivo in young and aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) using a novel contrast-enhanced(More)
We have assessed the effects of clodronate (dichloromethylene diphosphonate; Cl2MDP 0.8-3.2g daily by mouth for up to 3 months) in 17 episodes of hypercalcaemia and osteolysis due to carcinoma. Clodronate reduced serum calcium in 14 episodes and bone resorption in all patients. These remained suppressed for the duration of treatment, but recurred promptly(More)
Intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAo) in rodents is perhaps the most widely used model of stroke, however variability of infarct volume and the ramifications of this on sample sizes remains a problem, particularly for preclinical testing of potential therapeutics. Our data and that of others, has shown a dichotomous distribution of(More)
Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP) rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats(More)
The anticholinergic/antispasmodic agent oxybutynin does not induce physical dependence in rats when administered by oral gavage twice daily for 40 days; nor did challenge with naloxone precipitate withdrawal signs in these (oxybutynin-treated) animals. In contrast, morphine treatment resulted in a high degree of physical dependence as evidenced by the(More)
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