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Pressure-flow relationships measured in human plastinated specimen of both nasal cavities and maxillary sinuses were compared to those obtained by numerical airflow simulations in a numerical three-dimensional reconstruction issued from CT scans of the plastinated specimen. For experiments, flow rates up to 1,500 ml/s were tested using three different(More)
We compare the measurements of viscoelastic properties of adherent alveolar epithelial cells by two micromanipulation techniques: (i) magnetic twisting cytometry and (ii) optical tweezers, using microbeads of same size and similarly attached to F-actin. The values of equivalent Young modulus E, derived from linear viscoelasticity theory, become consistent(More)
Type II pneumocytes are essential for repair of the injured alveolar epithelium. The effect of two MMP collagenases, MMP-1 and MMP-13 on alveolar epithelial repair was studied in vitro. The A549 alveolar epithelial cell line and primary rat alveolar epithelial cell cultures were used. Cell adhesion and cell migration were measured with and without exogenous(More)
In order to understand the sensitivity of alveolar macrophages (AMs) to substrate properties, we have developed a new model of macrophages cultured on substrates of increasing Young's modulus: (i) a monolayer of alveolar epithelial cells representing the supple (approximately 0.1 kPa) physiological substrate, (ii) polyacrylamide gels with two concentrations(More)
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices with a servo-mechanism to control pressure have recently been developed. We evaluated six such devices and three conventional systems in terms of effectiveness in maintaining constant pressure. Machines were tested with pressure levels of 5, 10 and 15 cmH2O. Dynamic behaviour was evaluated: 1) by(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may require endotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation. We designed, and here report on the efficacy of, a noninvasive ventilatory-assistance apparatus to provide inspiratory-pressure support by means of a face mask. METHODS We assessed the short-term(More)
We studied eight heavy snorers with upper airway resistance syndrome to investigate potential effects of sleep on expiratory airway and lung resistance, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure, hyperinflation, and elastic inspiratory work of breathing (WOB). Wakefulness and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep with high- and with low-resistance inspiratory(More)
This study aims at quantifying the cellular mechanical properties based on a partitioning of the cytoskeleton in a cortical and a cytosolic compartments. The mechanical response of epithelial cells obtained by magnetocytometry - a micromanipulation technique which uses twisted ferromagnetic beads specifically linked to integrin receptors - was purposely(More)
Evaluation of the cytoskeleton mechanical properties requires specific micromanipulation techniques such as the magnetic twisting cytometry technique, in which microbeads are specifically linked to the cytoskeleton via transmembrane receptors. The aim of the study was to assess the structural relationship between the bead and the cytoskeleton structure. The(More)
We attempted to estimate in living adherent epithelial alveolar cells, the degree of structural and mechanical heterogeneity by considering two individualized cytoskeleton components, i.e., a submembranous "cortical" cytoskeleton and a "deep" cytoskeleton (CSK). F-actin structure characterizing each CSK component was visualized from spatial reconstructions(More)