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BACKGROUND Patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may require endotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation. We designed, and here report on the efficacy of, a noninvasive ventilatory-assistance apparatus to provide inspiratory-pressure support by means of a face mask. METHODS We assessed the short-term(More)
OBJECTIVE Home noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) is used with increasing frequency for the treatment of patients with respiratory failure caused by cystic fibrosis, yet the optimal mode of ventilation in such children is unknown. We compared the physiologic short-term effects of two ventilators with different modes (one pressure support and the(More)
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices with a servo-mechanism to control pressure have recently been developed. We evaluated six such devices and three conventional systems in terms of effectiveness in maintaining constant pressure. Machines were tested with pressure levels of 5, 10 and 15 cmH2O. Dynamic behaviour was evaluated: 1) by(More)
The use of helium-oxygen (HeO(2)) was tested in combination with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in 10 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Effort to breathe as assessed by the respiratory muscle pressure-time index (PTI), work of breathing (WOB), and gas exchange were the main endpoints. Results of NIV-HeO(2) were(More)
The effects of flow triggering (FT) as compared with pressure triggering (PT) on breathing effort have been the focus of several studies, and discrepant results have been reported. In the initial part of our study, a lung model was used to quantify triggering effort (airway pressure-time product, PTPaw) for a range of sensitivity settings in nine(More)
A bench study using an artificial lung model and a clinical study in patients were performed to evaluate six commercially available home pressure support devices. Six devices were tested in the in vitro study, including five designed for home use and one designed for use in intensive care units. Minimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) varied across(More)
Pressure–flow relationships measured in human plastinated specimen of both nasal cavities and maxillary sinuses were compared to those obtained by numerical airflow simulations in a numerical three-dimensional reconstruction issued from CT scans of the plastinated specimen. For experiments, flow rates up to 1500 ml/s were tested using three different gases:(More)
Type II pneumocytes are essential for repair of the injured alveolar epithelium. The effect of two MMP collagenases, MMP-1 and MMP-13 on alveolar epithelial repair was studied in vitro. The A549 alveolar epithelial cell line and primary rat alveolar epithelial cell cultures were used. Cell adhesion and cell migration were measured with and without exogenous(More)
We compare the measurements of viscoelastic properties of adherent alveolar epithelial cells by two micromanipulation techniques: (i) magnetic twisting cytometry and (ii) optical tweezers, using microbeads of same size and similarly attached to F-actin. The values of equivalent Young modulus E, derived from linear viscoelasticity theory, become consistent(More)
In order to understand the sensitivity of alveolar macrophages (AMs) to substrate properties, we have developed a new model of macrophages cultured on substrates of increasing Young's modulus: (i) a monolayer of alveolar epithelial cells representing the supple (approximately 0.1 kPa) physiological substrate, (ii) polyacrylamide gels with two concentrations(More)