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It has recently been reported (Van Dijk et al., 2011) that in-scanner head motion can have a substantial impact on MRI measurements of resting-state functional connectivity. This finding may be of particular relevance for studies of neurodevelopment in youth, confounding analyses to the extent that motion and subject age are related. Furthermore, while Van(More)
Several recent reports in large, independent samples have demonstrated the influence of motion artifact on resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rsfc-MRI). Standard rsfc-MRI preprocessing typically includes regression of confounding signals and band-pass filtering. However, substantial heterogeneity exists in how these techniques are implemented across(More)
Secretion of proteins is initiated by their uptake into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which possesses a proteolytic system able to degrade misfolded and nonassembled proteins. The ER degradation system was studied with yeast mutants defective in the breakdown of a mutated soluble vacuolar protein, carboxypeptidase yscY (CPY*). The ubiquitin-conjugating(More)
Proteins enter the secretory pathway through the endoplasmic reticulum, which delivers properly folded proteins to their site of action and contains a quality-control system to monitor and prevent abnormal proteins from being delivered. Many of these proteins are degraded by the cytoplasmic proteasome, which requires their retrograde transport to the(More)
The present study examined a role for GDNF in adaptations to drugs of abuse. Infusion of GDNF into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a dopaminergic brain region important for addiction, blocks certain biochemical adaptations to chronic cocaine or morphine as well as the rewarding effects of cocaine. Conversely, responses to cocaine are enhanced in rats by(More)
Humans communicate emotion vocally by modulating acoustic cues such as pitch, intensity and voice quality. Research has documented how the relative presence or absence of such cues alters the likelihood of perceiving an emotion, but the neural underpinnings of acoustic cue-dependent emotion perception remain obscure. Using functional magnetic resonance(More)
Several independent studies have demonstrated that small amounts of in-scanner motion systematically bias estimates of resting-state functional connectivity. This confound is of particular importance for studies of neurodevelopment in youth because motion is strongly related to subject age during this period. Critically, the effects of motion on(More)
Sex differences in human cognition are marked, but little is known regarding their neural origins. Here, in a sample of 674 human participants ages 9-22, we demonstrate that sex differences in cognitive profiles are related to multivariate patterns of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rsfc-MRI). Males outperformed females on motor and spatial(More)
CONTEXT Memory deficits are common in schizophrenia. Recent studies have demonstrated that relational memory is particularly impaired. OBJECTIVE To study the neural correlates of relational memory in schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging. DESIGN Cross-sectional case-control study. SETTING Academic medical center. Subjects Twenty(More)