Daniel H Shain

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Three alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes have recently been characterized in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. We report on a fourth ADH in K. lactis (KADH II: KADH2 The EMBL Library Accession Number for KADH2 is: X64397 gene) which is highly similar to other ADHs in K. lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. KADH II appears to be a cytoplasmic enzyme, and after(More)
Central nervous system (CNS) in leech comprises segmentally iterated progeny derived from five embryonic lineages (M, N, O, P and Q). Segmentation of the leech CNS is characterized by the formation of a series of transverse fissures that subdivide initially continuous columns of segmental founder cells in the N lineage into distinct ganglionic primordia. We(More)
Disparate psychrophiles (e.g. glacier ice worms, bacteria, algae and fungi) elevate steady-state intracellular ATP levels as temperatures decline, which has been interpreted as a compensatory mechanism to offset reductions in molecular motion and Gibb's free energy of ATP hydrolysis. In this study, we sought to manipulate steady-state ATP levels in the(More)
 Using intracellular lineage tracers to study the main neurogenic lineage (N lineage) of the glossiphoniid leech embryo, we have characterized events leading from continuous columns of segmental founder cells (nf and ns primary blast cells) to discrete, segmentally iterated ganglia. The separation between prospective ganglia was first evident as a fissure(More)
The ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus, is among a few metazoan species that survive exclusively in glacier ice/snow. In this study, we demonstrate that ice worm adenylate levels [i.e. adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), ADP and AMP] are maintained at levels well above their mesophilic counterparts, and that their response to temperature change is distinctly(More)
Ice worms occupy a unique position in metazoan phylogeny in that they are the only known annelid that completes its life cycle in ice. The mechanism(s) associated with this adaptation are likely to occur at different levels, ranging from modification of their metabolism to changes in morphology. In this study, we examined specimens of Mesenchytraeus(More)
Quantitation of cellular adenylate levels (i.e., ATP, ADP, AMP) has widespread applications in physiological, metabolic and energetic studies. We have compared classical adenylate extraction procedures (i.e., perchloric acid, boiling) with a previously unreported proteinase K-based extraction technique. Our results suggest that all three techniques are(More)
The ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus, is the largest glacially obligate metazoan and among only a few metazoan species that complete their life cycle at 0°C. We conducted a large-scale sequencing analysis of cDNAs isolated from ice worm anterior segments. Sequence comparisons among an available group of ice worm, arthropod, chordate, and nematode(More)
Glacier ice worms, Mesenchytraeus solifugus and related species, are the only known annelids that survive obligately in glacier ice and snow. One fundamental component of cold temperature adaptation is the ability to polymerize tubulin, which typically depolymerizes at low physiological temperatures (e.g., <10 degrees C) in most temperate species. In this(More)
Multiple sclerosis occurs as a consequence of central nervous system neuronal demyelination. Decades of research suggest that the primary suspects (e.g., viruses, genes, immune system) are associative rather than causative agents, but a surprisingly coherent relationship can be made between multiple sclerosis and fungal toxins. Specifically, certain(More)