Daniel H Rothman

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We examine the scaling law B is proportional to M(alpha)which connects organismal resting metabolic rate B with organismal mass M, where alpha is commonly held to be 3/4. Since simple dimensional analysis suggests alpha = 2/3, we consider this to be a null hypothesis testable by empirical studies. We re-analyse data sets for mammals and birds compiled by(More)
The existence of unusually large fluctuations in the Neoproterozoic (1,000-543 million years ago) carbon-isotopic record implies strong perturbations to the Earth's carbon cycle. To analyze these fluctuations, we examine records of both the isotopic content of carbonate carbon and the fractionation between carbonate and marine organic carbon. Together,(More)
Degradation of marine organic carbon provides a major source of atmospheric carbon dioxide, whereas preservation in sediments results in accumulation of oxygen. These processes involve the slow decay of chemically recalcitrant compounds and physical protection. To assess the importance of physical protection, we constructed a reaction-diffusion model in(More)
The re-emergence of groundwater at the surface shapes the Earth’s topography through a process known as seepage erosion1–5. In combination with flow over land6, seepage erosion contributes to the initiation and growth of channel networks1–5. Seepage processes have also been invoked in the formation of enigmatic amphitheatre-headed channel networks on both(More)
Scaling laws that describe the structure of river networks are shown to follow from three simple assumptions. These assumptions are (1) river networks are structurally self-similar, (2) single channels are self-affine, and (3) overland flow into channels occurs over a characteristic distance (drainage density is uniform). We obtain a complete set of scaling(More)
Motivated by examples of erosive incision of channels in sand, we investigate the motion of individual grains in a granular bed driven by a laminar fluid to give us new insights into the relationship between hydrodynamic stress and surface granular flow. A closed cell of rectangular cross-section is partially filled with glass beads and a constant fluid(More)
The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe biodiversity crisis in Earth history. To better constrain the timing, and ultimately the causes of this event, we collected a suite of geochronologic, isotopic, and biostratigraphic data on several well-preserved sedimentary sections in South China. High-precision U-Pb dating reveals that the extinction(More)
Data obtained recently by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) were used to study the statistical properties of the topography and slopes on Mars. We find that the hemispheric dichotomy, manifested as an elevation difference, can be described by long baseline tilts but in places is expressed as steeper slopes. The bimodal hypsometry of elevations on Mars(More)
Carbon removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis is released back by respiration. Although some organic carbon is degraded quickly, older carbon persists; consequently carbon stocks are much larger than predicted by initial decomposition rates. This disparity can be traced to a wide range of first-order decay-rate constants, but the rate distributions(More)