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A survey of 1,246 children 10-12 years old in 32 primary schools in Kenya near Lake Victoria was conducted to determine prevalence and distribution of schistosome and geohelminth infections. Stool and urine samples were collected and examined for eggs of Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and intestinal helminths. A questionnaire was used to obtain(More)
We established a health and demographic surveillance system in a rural area of western Kenya to measure the burden of infectious diseases and evaluate public health interventions. After a baseline census, all 33,990 households were visited every four months. We collected data on educational attainment, socioeconomic status, pediatric outpatient visits,(More)
One of the consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is the increase in the number of orphans, estimated to have reached 6-11% of children <15 years old in 2000. Orphans who stay in their communities may be at increased risk for poor health due to reduced circumstances and loss of parental care. We have used data from a population-based(More)
BACKGROUND Geohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear. METHODOLOGY During a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglobin was measured and a blood slide examined for malaria.(More)
Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), a flame-retardant material, was introduced into the food chain in Michigan in 1973 due to a manufacturing and distribution mistake. Following public concern about the long-term health effects of PBB in humans, a cohort of PBB-exposed Michigan residents was assembled in 1975. We initiated this study to determine the half-life(More)
CONTEXT Insecticide-treated bednets reduce malaria transmission and child morbidity and mortality in short-term trials, but this impact may not be sustainable. Previous investigators have suggested that bednet use might paradoxically increase mortality in older children through delayed acquisition of immunity to malaria. OBJECTIVES To determine whether(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with ischaemic stroke due to occlusion of the basilar or vertebral arteries may develop a rapid deterioration in neurological status leading to coma and often to death. While intra-arterial thrombolysis may be used in this context, no randomised controlled data exist to support its safety or efficacy. METHODS Randomised controlled(More)
The epidemiology of malaria in urban environments is poorly characterized, yet increasingly problematic. We conducted an unmatched case-control study of risk factors for malarial anemia with high parasitemia in urban Kisumu, Kenya, from June 2002 through February 2003. Cases (n = 80) were hospital patients with a hemoglobin level < or = 8 g/dL and a(More)
CONTEXT Studies conducted in the late 1980s on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among older men who have sex with men (MSM) suggested the epidemic had peaked; however, more recent studies in younger MSM have suggested continued high HIV incidence. OBJECTIVE To investigate the current state of the HIV epidemic among adolescent and young adult(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether the administration of 1.5 million units of streptokinase intravenously within 4 hours of the onset of acute ischemic stroke would reduce morbidity and mortality at 3 months and whether outcomes may be better for those receiving therapy within 3 hours of stroke onset compared with those receiving it after 3 hours. DESIGN(More)