Daniel H. Hwang

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Insulin resistance contributes importantly to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. One mechanism mediating insulin resistance may involve the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), leading to impairment in the ability of IRS-1 to activate downstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathways.(More)
Results from our previous studies demonstrated that activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, is sufficient to induce nuclear factor kappaB activation and expression of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in macrophages. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) acylated in lipid A moiety of LPS are essential for biological(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 agonists from bacterial origin require acylated saturated fatty acids in their molecules. Previously, we reported that TLR4 activation is reciprocally modulated by saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in macrophages. However, it is not known whether fatty acids can modulate the activation of TLR2 or other TLRs for(More)
Two forms of cyclooxygenase are known to be present in eukaryotic organisms: a cyclooxygenase (COX-1) first purified from ram seminal vesicles encoded by a 2.8-kilobase mRNA, and a newly discovered mitogen-inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) encoded by a 4-kilobase mRNA. Expression of these two forms of the enzyme in rat alveolar macrophages stimulated with(More)
Human subjects consuming fish oil showed a significant suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in blood monocytes when stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agonist for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Results with a murine monocytic cell line (RAW 264.7) stably transfected with COX-2 promoter reporter gene also demonstrated that(More)
Inefficient muscle long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion is associated with insulin resistance, but molecular links between mitochondrial fat catabolism and insulin action remain controversial. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitine profiling would identify distinct metabolite patterns reflective of muscle fat catabolism when comparing individuals(More)
Two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) have been identified in eukaryotic cells: COX-1 encoded by a 2.8-kb mRNA, and a mitogen-inducible COX-2 encoded by a 4-kb mRNA. We have cloned the COX-1 and COX-2 cDNAs from the cDNA library constructed from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat peritoneal macrophages. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that COX-1(More)
Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) can be activated by nonbacterial agonists, including saturated fatty acids. However, downstream signaling pathways activated by nonbacterial agonists are not known. Thus, we determined the downstream signaling pathways derived from saturated fatty acid-induced TLR4 activation. Saturated fatty acid (lauric acid)-induced NFkappaB(More)
The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies demonstrated that saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids reciprocally modulate the activation of TLR4.(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in induction of innate immune and inflammatory responses by recognizing invading pathogens or non-microbial endogenous molecules. TLRs have two major downstream signaling pathways, MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways leading to the activation of NFkappaB and IRF3 and the expression of inflammatory mediators.(More)