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Two groups of 3 120-160-kg Holstein steers were fed a diet high in carbohydrate and low in long fiber and either with or without added sodium sulfate. Prior to and during the course of feeding the experimental diet, the concentrations of rumen hydrogen sulfide gas and rumen fluid sulfide were determined by a simple sulfide detector tube method and by(More)
Two hundred forty single-source, cross-bred steers (304 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of various water sulfate concentrations on performance, water intake, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers. Cattle were stratified by weight and assigned within weight blocks to five water treatments. Averaged over time, actual water sulfate concentrations(More)
The plant toxin, 3-nitropropanoic acid, produced topographically and morphologically distinctive lesions in mice after daily intraperitoneal injections. In the lateral caudate-putamen there were bilateral and symmetrical lesions consisting of marked swelling and pyknosis of individual cells and processes in otherwise unaffected tissue. The appearance of(More)
The clinical signs and morphological brain lesions associated with histotoxic hypoxia induced by subcutaneous injection of 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA) in rats are described, and compared to hypoxic brain damage from other causes including ischemia and hypoglycemia. The brains were perfusion-fixed with paraformaldehyde/glutaraldehyde fixative, and examined(More)
Dairy cow mortality levels in the United States are excessive and increasing over time. To better define cause and effect and combat rising mortality, clearer definitions of the reasons that cows die need to be acquired through thorough necropsy-based postmortem evaluations. The current study focused on organizing information generated from postmortem(More)
The effects of a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of the nitroaliphatic toxicants 3-nitropropanol (NPOH) and 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA) dissolved in physiological saline solution were studied in mice and rats, respectively. Clinical signs observed in both NPOH-treated mice and NPA-treated rats included depression, abnormal motor activity, and(More)
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) disseminated infection in dairy cattle affects animal health and productivity and is also a potential public health concern. The study objectives were to characterize MAP disseminated infection in dairy cattle and to determine the role of antemortem tests in detecting cattle with disseminated infection.(More)
Tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.) have exhibited high seroprevalence rates, suggesting that they are commonly exposed to West Nile virus (WNV). Many characteristics of WNV infections in tree squirrels, such as the durations and levels of viremia, remain unknown. To better understand WNV infections in fox squirrels (S. niger), we subcutaneously inoculated(More)
Five haloalkanes--CBrCl3, CCl4, CHCl3, and 1,1,1-and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (TCE)--were ranked for their relative hepatotoxicity in an in vitro system of isolated hepatocyte suspensions and in vivo by po administration of the test chemical to fasted rats of the same strain and sex as used for the hepatocytes. Cytotoxic parameters used for ranking in the in(More)
Nine 115- to 180-kg, hay-adapted, Holstein steers were fed an experimental diet with added sodium sulfate that induces polioencephalomalacia (PEM). Five calves developed the disease. Thiamine concentrations in blood, CSF, brain, and liver were not indicative of thiamine deficiency. The odor of hydrogen sulfide in eructated rumen gas was associated with the(More)