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The regenerative growth in culture of the axons of two giant identified neurons from the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was observed using video-enhanced contrast-differential interference contrast microscopy. This technique allowed the visualization in living cells of the membranous organelles of the growth cone. Elongation of axonal(More)
Morphological changes are thought to contribute to the expression of long-term synaptic plasticity, a cellular basis for learning and memory. The mechanisms mediating the initiation and maintenance of the morphological changes are poorly understood. We repeatedly imaged the axonal arbors of mechanosensory neurons of Aplysia as they formed new synaptic(More)
Recent evidence has implicated dynein and its regulatory factors dynactin and LIS1 in neuronal and non-neuronal cell migration. In the current study we sought to test whether effects on neuronal cell motility might reflect, in part, a role for these proteins in the growth cone. In chick sensory neurons subjected to acute laminin treatment dynein, dynactin,(More)
The p38 stress-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in regulation of phosphorylation of Hsp25, which in turn regulates actin filament dynamic in non-neuronal cells. We report that p38, Hsp25 and Akt signaling pathways were specifically activated in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve axotomy. The activation of the p38 kinase was required for(More)
The growth of axons and dendrites during development and regeneration is regulated by cues in the environment. Many of these cues regulate the actin cytoskeleton of the protrusive structures (like filopodia) of the growth cone that are essential for detecting and responding to cues. Nerve growth factor, which promotes the formation of protrusive structures,(More)
Extracellular cues control the rate and direction of growth of neuronal processes in large part by regulating the cytoskeleton of the growth cone. The actin filament network of the peripheral region is thought to be the primary target for these cues, with consequences for the advance and organization of microtubules. Binding of laminin to integrin receptors(More)
Formation of terminal synapses at sites such as the neuromuscular junction involves transformation of the motile growth cone into the nonmotile synaptic terminal. However, transformation does not need to be the mechanism when a neurite forms multiple widely spaced synaptic varicosities along a target in an en passant configuration. Synaptic varicosities(More)
Growth cones of Aplysia californica neurons were observed with video-enhanced contrast-differential interference contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy as they turned at a border between poly-L-lysine-treated and untreated glass. Growth cones that turned generally developed 2 distinct active areas of filopodial and veil formation, much in the way of growth cones(More)