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BACKGROUND Caesarean delivery rates continue to increase worldwide. Our aim was to assess the association between caesarean delivery and pregnancy outcome at the institutional level, adjusting for the pregnant population and institutional characteristics. METHODS For the 2005 WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health, we assessed a multistage(More)
BACKGROUND We report the main findings of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which aimed to assess the burden of complications related to pregnancy, the coverage of key maternal health interventions, and use of the maternal severity index (MSI) in a global network of health facilities. METHODS In our cross-sectional(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. DESIGN Prospective cohort study within the 2005 WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health. SETTING 410 health facilities in 24 areas in eight randomly selected Latin American countries; 123 were randomly selected and 120 participated(More)
Smokers have a significantly higher risk for developing coronary and cerebrovascular disease than nonsmokers. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are reactive, cross-linking moieties that form from the reaction of reducing sugars and the amino groups of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. AGEs circulate in high concentrations in the plasma of patients(More)
OBJECTIVE Preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and unexplained intrauterine growth restriction may have similar determinants and consequences. In this study, we compared determinants and perinatal outcomes associated with these obstetric conditions. STUDY DESIGN We analyzed 39,615 pregnancies (data from the WHO Antenatal Care Trial), of which 2.2% were(More)
OBJECTIVE Our aim was to document the differential neonatal morbidity and intrapartum and neonatal mortality of subgroups of preterm delivery. METHODS This analysis included 38,319 singleton pregnancies, of which 3,304 (8.6%) were preterm deliveries (less than 37 completed weeks) enrolled in the World Health Organization randomized trial of a new(More)
BACKGROUND Control of blood glucose is important in reducing both the incidence and the severity of complications in diabetes mellitus. One consequence of long- term hyperglycaemia is the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on tissue macromolecules. An AGE-modified form of human haemoglobin (Hb-AGE) present at high levels in(More)
Cluster-based studies involving aggregate units such as hospitals or medical practices are increasingly being used in healthcare evaluation. An important characteristic of such studies is the presence of intracluster correlation, typically quantified by the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC). Sample size calculations for cluster-based studies need(More)
OBJECTIVE A dipslide is a plastic paddle coated with agar that is attached to a plastic cap that screws onto a sterile plastic vial. Our objective was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the dipslide culture technique to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy and to evaluate the accuracy of nitrate and leucocyte esterase dipslides for(More)
BACKGROUND Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a(More)